Thermal insulation for air conditioning pipes for the full operation of the entire system


3 min 7.1k.

Usually, the owners of the equipment trust the process of installing the air conditioner to the masters who perform all the necessary work, providing a ready-made result. There are people who prefer to do everything on their own, and if you have the necessary skills, this is a completely logical decision.

One of the stages of the installation of new equipment is thermal insulation for air conditioner freon pipelines. It is used in order not to lose the capacity of the apparatus, part of which can leave through heat transfer from the pipes. The presence of protection helps prevent the formation of condensate on the surface of the pipes, which can begin to leak along the walls, forming dirty stains. In this case, the thickness of the insulating material usually depends on the diameter of the pipe used.

How to install thermal insulation?

It usually takes some time to insulate copper air conditioning pipes, because not only do you need to put the appropriate material on the pipes, but also place it all in a pre-made hole in the wall. All these actions can be divided into several stages.

  • First, the necessary calculations are carried out in order to accurately determine the place where the system will be located, and also take into account the location of not only pipes, but also air conditioning units. It will be necessary to carry out markings on the wall to facilitate further work. After that, you can start chasing.
  • When all the necessary strobes are made, you can proceed directly to the preparation of the route design. It is necessary to unwind the bay with copper tubes to a certain length and put on them a pre-purchased insulation. For convenience, you can wrap the track in some places with special reinforced tape. It is worth noting that if the route is too long, then additional soldering of copper pipes may be required. In addition, it is better to try not to bend the structure too much, as the pipes may break, as a result of which, during the start-up of the air conditioner, there will be a leak of refrigerant, which will have to be eliminated. Therefore, it is better to handle the system carefully at the installation stage.
  • When the track is ready, it is necessary to lay it directly into the channels prepared for it in the wall. Fastening can be done with mounting tape and dowel nails. It is important to ensure that the structure does not protrude somewhere further than the plane of the wall.
  • After the entire system is installed in its place, you can cover up the strobes to return the wall to its original appearance. When the work with the surface is completed, you can begin to install the air conditioner units, as well as adjust their operation and test run.

This step is not considered mandatory during the work, but if the thermal insulation of the air conditioner route is being installed, experienced installers recommend that the route be pressure tested. It is performed using specially prepared nitrogen. This is done in order not to accidentally break through the structure in the wall when finishing, as this will lead to the need for dismantling. It is possible, as an additional option, to install a pressure gauge on the route so that it shows the current pressure in the system, by which it will be possible to determine the presence or absence of leaks.

Consider the volume of pipes with thermal insulation for laying the strobe

Thermal insulation manufacturers

Energoflex manufactures various pipes for thermal insulation, the range allows you to choose the material of the desired diameter in order to equip the system in accordance with all necessary requirements. Tubes are produced from foamed polymers, the composition of which was developed in a special way, for use in various air conditioning systems. It has a closed-cell surface, thereby providing a high level of resistance to moisture permeability and vapor permeability, which is important when insulating cold surfaces.

Insulation materials are manufactured by Thermaflex, which produces closed-cell synthetic rubber tubes. This provides the flexibility of the material as well as excellent insulating properties. In addition, it is resistant to microorganisms.Synthetic rubber insulating tubes

There are other manufacturers that produce similar products with similar properties and are used in the implementation of thermal insulation.


what you need to know when designing


4 min 4.1k.

With the increase in the volume of construction in our country of healthcare facilities, laboratories, enterprises for the production of microelectronics, medicines, etc., the demand for ventilation systems for «clean rooms», which will be discussed in this publication, has sharply increased.


Clean room concept

It is customary to call a clean room (CP) a room or a group of rooms with all the structures related to them, in which the countable concentration of suspended particles and microorganisms in the air mixture is maintained at a strictly defined level, determined by GOST ISO 14644-1-2002; SNiP 41-01-2003(8); sanitary standards and the required class of cleanliness. The United States, Germany, France, Great Britain and the European Union have their own standards for the purity of the air mixture.

Depending on the counting amount of suspended particles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 5.0 microns per 1 m3 in the state of emergency, and the concentration of microorganisms in it, 9 classes of sterility are determined.

Limits for maximum concentrations of particulate matterBased on the MPC of microorganisms, class 5 iso is divided into two subspecies:

  • «A» — MPC of microorganisms, not more than 1/m3;
  • «B» — MPC of microorganisms not more than 5/m3.

For the PE, its iso class and state are used: «operated»; «built» and «equipped».

Equipment for creating «clean air exchange»

Creating competent ventilation and air conditioning systems for clean rooms is a complex process that requires knowledge of air exchange features, special equipment and specific technical solutions.

The air in such a room must be supplied already cleaned of contaminants, bacteria and microorganisms, therefore, the filtering system of the supply air mixture plays a special role in creating a sterile microclimate in «clean rooms». A popular cleaning system is the installation of three groups of filter elements after the blower:

  1. The first group consists of a coarse filter from mechanical impurities.
  2. The second group of filters consists of a set of fine filter elements and an antibacterial filter.
  3. The third group consists of HEPA microfilters with absolute cleaning of the supply air.

In addition to filter elements, the ventilation of clean rooms involves: fans, air intake and air distribution equipment, devices for automatically maintaining the required humidity and temperature, shut-off and control equipment, gateways, etc. The choice of one or another set of equipment depends on the purpose of the emergency, and the required object of air cleanliness class.

When designing CP ventilation systems, much attention is paid to the design and coating of air ducts and filter chambers, which must undergo periodic antimicrobial treatment.

Features of air exchange

To maintain the purity of the air, in process clean rooms, ventilation with an excess volume of inflow should be used, compared with the exhaust in adjacent rooms.

  • If the room is without windows, then the inflow should prevail over the exhaust by 20%.
  • If the emergency room has windows that allow infiltration, then the air supply capacity should be 30% higher than the exhaust.

It is this air exchange system that prevents the penetration of contaminants and ensures the movement of air from a clean room to adjacent rooms. Much attention of designers is paid to the methods of supplying the air mixture to such objects and depends on their purpose.Sterile room

The inflow to the emergency room with a purity class from 1 to 6 must be supplied by an air distribution device from top to bottom, creating uniform unidirectional air flows of low speed, from 0.2 to 0.45 m/s. In rooms with a lower cleanliness class, it is allowed to create a non-unidirectional flow by means of several ceiling diffusers. The frequency of air exchange for PE is set depending on their purpose, from 25 to 60 times per hour.

The most common schemes

When designing ventilation of clean rooms, one of the main problems is the correct organization of air mixture flows. To date, designers use several solutions for the location of air distribution devices, the choice of which depends on the purpose of the emergency. Consider the most common schemes for organizing ventilation in the operating room.Operating room ventilation schemes

  • A) air flow is unidirectional, through an inclined ventilation grille;
  • B) non-unidirectional inflow of the air mixture is carried out through the use of ceiling diffusers;
  • C) supply air to the operating room is supplied through a perforated ceiling panel with the creation of a vertical unidirectional air flow;
  • D) the supply air mixture is supplied through the ceiling air diffuser, which creates a unidirectional air flow to the working area;
  • E) Air is not unidirectional through an annular air hose.

Exhaust ventilation of clean operating rooms is carried out by means of exhaust fans and overflow wall grates with check valves.

As practice has shown, the best device for creating unidirectional laminar airflow in the operating room are ceiling-type mesh air diffusers. For example, a laminar ceiling with dimensions of 1.8 by 2.4 m in an operating room with an area of ​​40 m2, will allow you to create a 25-fold air exchange at a speed of air outlet from the device of 0.2 m/s. These indicators are sufficient to assimilate heat surpluses from the operation of the equipment and the number of personnel in the operating room.

Designing ventilation and air conditioning systems in an emergency is a complex process that requires knowledge of air exchange processes and the intricacies of using air distribution equipment. That is why to create ventilation at such facilities, you should contact only professionals.


process features, vacuum pump selection


5 minutes 2.5k.

The installation of an air conditioning system includes several steps that are important to carry out in the right way in order to ensure the long-term functioning of the installed device. Not everyone knows why evacuate the air conditioner, but this is a necessary step during installation, since the further operation of the device largely depends on it. The blocks of the apparatus form a kind of system, which is connected using copper pipes. They circulate coolant. After the installation is completed, some air remains in these pipes, which during operation will interact with the refrigerant, negatively affecting the quality of the system. That is why excess air must be eliminated — this will significantly extend the life of the air conditioner and do without unscheduled repairs.


Process features

In order to evacuate air, you must first prepare all the suitable tools that will be required in the process of performing the work.

  • Vacuum pump for pumping air from the air conditioner.
  • A special station, which is equipped with hoses and a device — a pressure gauge.
  • Suitable bottled refrigerant for use in the system.
  • Wrenches and all kinds of screwdrivers that will come in handy for the job.

First you need to connect the pump through hoses directly to the special port of the air conditioner intended for service work. After that, you need to let the pump work for a while so that it pumps out excess air. Depending on the model and its features, it will take 10-20 minutes. When the right time has passed, a vacuum will be established inside. Pump for pumping air from the line

When the pumping is completed, you do not need to immediately disconnect all devices, for another half an hour you should monitor the system, paying attention to the pressure gauge. The arrow on it should not change its position, which means that the pressure inside the device remains unchanged. If the arrow jumps and rises, then the system is not completely sealed, and a leak has formed in some place. You will need to find the problem area and deal with the malfunction.

As a rule, there are several of the most common reasons why depressurization can occur.

  • Not completely tight connection due to weak tightening of the nut in some area. A problem can occur if the nut, on the contrary, has been tightened too much.
  • During installation, one of the copper pipes may break, which will lead to a leak.
  • Rolling of poor quality.

When the work with vacuuming is completed, and all leak tests have been successfully passed, you can proceed to the second stage of the procedure — to run the coolant into the system. To do this, you must first disconnect the pump, and then open the taps. You will need hex keys to carry out this operation. Open taps slowly and carefully. At the same time, a hiss can be heard, which means that the refrigerant has completely begun to fill the pipes. After that, it will be possible to run the first test check of the device. During testing, you will need to check all modes to ensure that the device is working properly.Work tool

Vacuum pump selection

Before starting the start, it is important to evacuate the line when installing the air conditioner, otherwise the device will work much less than the time allotted to it. To carry out this procedure, you will need a vacuum pump that will remove excess air from the system.

How does this machine work? It’s all about the internal binding of gases and their removal outside the system. A certain volume of the existing air mixture, which is in the pipes, is isolated, as well as moving it directly to the nozzle. As for the principle of binding, in this case the molecules simply gather and settle on a solid surface, and then they are carried away with the liquid medium, creating the necessary vacuum inside. There are two ways to get rid of air, and which one will be used depends on the selected pump model.

Freon line connectionThere are two types of vacuum cleaner for air conditioners, low vacuum or high vacuum. In turn, they are divided into several more categories, which include various devices.

Low vacuum devices are as follows:

  • Rotary plate — are considered the highest quality and most reliable of those that are included in this group of devices.
  • Two-stage — have two rotating mechanisms with which they capture air and remove it.
  • Liquid ring — work by using a system with liquid vapor.

High vacuum devices can also be different:

  • Diffusion devices are quite popular devices that have a solid speed, but oils are used in the process that pollute the gas mixture.
  • Criadsorption — these devices use liquid nitrogen, which can freeze gases, but at the same time warms up the device itself.
  • Heterionic — are considered the most effective, but also the most expensive, because they allow you to get a vacuum, without any pollution.

When choosing a device for evacuating an air conditioner, it is necessary to take into account a number of characteristics and features.

  • It is important to take into account the technical properties of the air conditioner itself in order to choose the right pump.
  • It is also worth considering the period of use of the device.
  • The size of the pipe system from which the mixture will be pumped out also plays an important role.

In addition, the pump must meet a certain number of requirements.

Its use should provide the necessary level of pressure so that the operation of the air conditioner is long and does not threaten unscheduled repairs.

The device should be easy to use, with optimal weight, all necessary indicators, valves and other devices.

The device must work in various conditions.

When choosing a pump, you should also inspect the body of the device to make sure that it is reliable and of high quality, find out the available chamber volume and performance, which will directly affect the time to complete the work.

What should be avoided during installation?

Some specialists are in no hurry to evacuate, instead doing something else — expelling part of the freon from the system in order to displace the existing air. It is worth noting that this is an extremely unreliable and dubious method that is better not to use. Such actions speak of unprofessionalism, since they harm the state of the system and can lead to its breakdown. Even if there is no vacuum pump at hand, in order to carry out the correct elimination of air, you should not use inappropriate methods, it is better to postpone the start of the system until the pump is purchased. Then it will be possible not to be afraid of breakdowns and unpleasant surprises.


Ventilation duct in a brick wall: norms and rules for arrangement


4 min 16.5k.

Air exchange in brick houses is carried out with the help of ventilation ducts mounted from finished pipes in the thickness of the internal walls, or made of bricks. Ventilation shafts are arranged in internal walls and partitions from special ventilation blocks. There are strictly defined rules for creating private and apartment buildings in brick walls, which will be discussed in this publication.

Arrangement rules

The design of air exchange systems in brick buildings is usually created yet. It is necessary that the air lines meet all the requirements of SNiP 2.04.05-86. Since air ducts, channels and shafts can be structurally interconnected, which makes them a source of fire hazard, their laying must comply with the norms of SNiP 41-01-2003. What you should pay attention to:

  • It is forbidden to build ventilation ducts in the outer walls. Such placement will
  • The vertical arrangement of shafts is recommended. If this is not possible, then the angle of inclination of the air line must be at least 60 ° to the base of the building.
  • If the room has high humidity, then it is strongly not recommended to arrange air channels in the walls of such rooms. Due to this placement in the mines, condensation is possible, which can lead to the collapse of the channel.
  • It is possible to combine air ducts from bathrooms in the attic if they are on the same side of the house. Horizontal sections in unheated attics are made of double insulated 40 mm expanded clay concrete slabs, with an air cavity between them equal to the thickness of the slabs.Union of ducts

There are a number of requirements for placing a ventilation duct in brick walls in relation to the roof. The location of the outlet of the ventilation ducts, closer than 2.5 m from the ridge, indicates its normalized height above the roofing material is more than 50 cm. ridge to the pipe at an angle of 10 °. The place of visual intersection and shows the required height of the pipe from the roof surface.

When the air duct is located further than three meters from the ridge, its height from the roof cannot be less than 50 cm.

Important Points

The size of the section of vertical shafts should be calculated based on the air exchange required for a particular room and the heat source in the ventilated room.

  • With a thermal power of a heat source up to 3.5 kW, an air shaft with a cross section of 14×14 cm is required.
  • If the power of the heating unit is from 3.5 to 5.2 kW, then the dimensions should be increased to 14×20 cm.
  • With a higher power of the heat source, the shaft is made with dimensions of 14×27 cm.

The minimum cross-sectional size of the air shaft must be at least 140×140 mm, which is half a brick. The masonry around the channel and the partition between them cannot be less than 140 mm. The thickness of the partition between shafts of various purposes, for example, smoke and ventilation, must be at least 250 mm. (in brick).

The creation of air shafts, channels and air ducts should be started no closer than 40 cm from a window or doorway. The inner surface of the shaft must be made as even as possible, and the seams of the brickwork must be rubbed.Ventilation ducts in the foam block

In construction, as in other industries, everything is subject to economy. The simplest and lightest building material, requiring minimal labor to create piers, are blocks of cellular concrete (aerated concrete, foam concrete). To create in the walls of foam blocks, it is recommended to line the voids with asbestos-cement, metal or plastic pipes with a diameter of 125-150 mm.

Helpful Tips

When laying mines in brick walls on your own, we recommend taking note of some useful tips from professionals.

  1. The first thing you need to work is the material. Brick for masonry should be chosen only full-bodied. As a binder, use an aqueous solution of sand and cement in a ratio of 1:3.
  2. Tool. You will need: mason’s pick, hammer, trowel, plumb line, level, jointing, spatula. For dividing bricks, it is best to use a «grinder» with a cutting disc for stone.Tool
  3. The figure below shows two options for laying ventilation ducts for one-and-a-half and double walls.Options for laying ventilation ducts

To create the correct shape of the shaft, use a hollow template of the desired size, made of plywood.

Tip: when laying, do not allow clogging of the channel, which can lead to a decrease in draft, and as a result, a decrease in the performance of the ventilation system.


Precision air conditioning, if the task is to accurately maintain the temperature in the room


5 minutes 1.6k.

Nowadays, there are more and more places where it is required to observe the exact temperature regime of the air. These are all kinds of laboratories, server rooms, rooms with a large accumulation of computer equipment, rooms containing certain types of flora that do not tolerate environmental changes, etc. But conventional climate equipment does not always cope with the tasks set, so precision air conditioners are used in such rooms.


A precision air conditioner is a special highly reliable type of climate technology, the main feature of which is the ability to work for a long time and maintain certain air parameters in the room with particular accuracy. A precision air conditioner can not only cool the air, but also work to heat and humidify the room.

Air can be supplied in several ways: frontally, from above or from the bottom of the panel. From the top of the unit, air is supplied directly or through air ducts connected to it. Air can also be supplied from the bottom of the indoor unit of the air conditioner. In such cases, raised floors are installed in the room, thanks to which a uniform distribution of air mass is ensured.

Types and types of precision climatic equipment

Such climatic equipment is available in several types of execution:

  • Cabinet, with separate external and internal block.
  • Monoblock.
  • Ceiling execution with separate blocks.

Cabinet climate equipment, as a rule, has high power and good cooling capacity. They are used in large rooms and, thanks to the controller, effectively eliminate «hot» and stagnant air zones in the room.

Heat distribution in a closed room when using a cabinet air conditionerMonoblock technology is compact and therefore used in small spaces. Most often, such equipment is used to maintain the specified air parameters in remote access nodes and mobile points of telecommunications equipment.

The ceiling device is considered the most efficient and economical due to the distribution of the intake and supply of air flows. The intake is carried out under the ceiling, and the supply is in the lower part of the room, directly to the equipment, so that the air does not mix.

The device and principle of operation of these climate systems

The principle of operation of precision air conditioners directly depends on their design. Consider the most common types of this climate equipment.

  • Freon precision air-cooled air conditioner. The operation of such equipment is practically no different from the operation of a conventional split system.
    • Precision air conditioner deviceWith the help of a sensor installed in the internal module of this equipment, when the air parameters change, the controller starts the compressor, which, during operation, compresses the gaseous freon entering the condenser side.
    • In it, under the influence of pressure and cooling by fans, it passes into a liquid form.
    • In this form, the gas passes through a throttling device, where its pressure drops sharply.
    • In the evaporator, the refrigerant from a liquid state again turns into vapor, taking heat from the air and giving the heat exchanger cold from the outside air.
    • The cold heat exchanger is blown by a fan, thereby cooling the air flow.
  • Double-circuit precision equipment. In such a system, the freon circuit gives off heat to the water circuit, which removes heat through a heat exchanger located outside. Despite the fact that this method provides significant energy savings, the installation of precision air conditioners of this design is quite complicated and financially expensive.

Advantages and disadvantages that may affect the choice of equipment

The main advantages of this technique include:

  • The highest accuracy of work in the given climatic parameters. Such equipment can maintain the temperature in the room, with an accuracy of 0.1 ° C, and the humidity level up to ± 2%. In addition, such equipment is able to effectively perform the assigned tasks in the temperature range from -50 C° to + 50 C°.
  • Reliability. They can operate continuously, with round-the-clock operation, for 15-20 years. But keeping them running smoothly requires regular maintenance of precision air conditioners and an installed system to restart in the event of a power failure.
  • High efficiency and energy efficiency of this technique. Such systems, thanks to the use of modern technologies, have a high efficiency and are able to process a large amount of air in a short time with low energy consumption.
  • Possibility of automated control and remote control over the set parameters.

The video provides a solution for a data center with a large heat dissipation.

The main disadvantages of such climate technology

  • Such climate systems are reliable, high-tech and expensive. The precision air conditioner circuit includes quite a lot of complex equipment for monitoring and controlling the system, air filtration and humidification elements, so this climate technology cannot be cheap.
  • The disadvantages of this technique include the difficulty in finding qualified service personnel. Paradoxically, it is very difficult to find a specialist in the repair and maintenance of this equipment even in large cities, not to mention the periphery.
  • Another disadvantage is their narrow specialization. They are used only if other systems cannot provide sufficient reliability and efficiency, although in some cases their use cannot be dispensed with.

Scope of air conditioners

Despite the fact that they are practically not used for air treatment in residential premises, the scope of precision air conditioners is quite large:

  • Telecommunication premises.
  • Data collection and processing centers.
  • Server rooms.
  • Chemical and bacteriological laboratories.
  • Operating rooms and intensive care units.
  • Museums and libraries.

The installation of such climate control equipment is similar to the installation of a column or monoblock air conditioner. Regardless of the complexity of the installation, installation of precision air conditioners, setting up the operation of the system and subsequent maintenance should be carried out exclusively by professionals.


nozzle, overhead, low-speed, calculation algorithm


6 min 2.7k.

To create a truly efficient ventilation system, a lot of tasks must be solved, one of which is competent air distribution. Not focusing on this aspect when designing ventilation and air conditioning systems, as a result, you can get increased noise, drafts, the presence of stagnant zones even in ventilation systems with high efficiency characteristics. The most important device that affects the correct distribution of air flow throughout the room is the air distributor. Depending on the installation and design features, these devices are called gratings or diffusers.


Air diffuser classification

All air diffusers are classified:

  • By appointment. They can be supply, exhaust and reflow.
  • By the degree of impact on air masses. These devices can be mixing and displacing.
  • By installation. The diffusers can be used for indoor or outdoor installation.

Internal diffusers are divided into ceiling, floor or wall.

Supply, in turn, are classified according to the shape of the outgoing air jet, which can be:

  • Vertical compact air jets.
  • conical jets.
  • Full and incomplete fan currents of air.

In this publication, we will look at the most common diffusers: ceiling, slot, nozzle and low velocity.

Requirements for modern air diffusers

For many, the word ventilation is synonymous with constant background noise. The consequences of this are chronic fatigue, irritability and headache. Based on this, the air distributor must be quiet.

In addition, it is not very pleasant to be indoors if you constantly feel chilled air currents on yourself. This is not only unpleasant, but can also lead to illness, so the second requirement is that the diffuser should not create drafts.

Different circumstances often require a change of scenery. You can change furniture or rearrange office equipment. It is also easy to order a new original design of the room, but it is quite difficult to change the air distributors, which were calculated at the design stage. The third requirement “follows” from this: the air distributor should be hardly noticeable, or, as the designers say, “dissolved in the interior of the room”.

Slotted air flow distributors

Slot diffusers are ventilation equipment designed to supply fresh air and remove exhaust air from rooms with high requirements for the design and quality of the air mixture. For optimal air distribution, the ceiling height when using such equipment is limited to 4 meters.Slot-shaped air diffusers

The design of the device consists of an aluminum body with horizontal slotted holes, the number of which, depending on the model, can vary from 1 to 6. A cylindrical roller is mounted inside the diffuser to control the direction of air flow. As a rule, such diffusers are equipped with a plenum to control the air flow.

The slot height can also be different: from 8 to 25 mm. The length of the device is not regulated and can be from 2 cm to 3 m, so that they can be mounted in continuous lines of almost any shape. Linear slot diffusers are characterized by good aerodynamic properties, attractive design and a high degree of induction, due to which the supply air flows are quickly heated. Such devices are mounted in suspended ceilings and wall structures. The installation height must not be less than 2.6 m.

Ceiling diffusers

Diffusers located under the ceilingCeiling diffusers can be supply or exhaust. These devices differ in: design, shape, size, performance, air jet formation. In addition, diffusers differ in aerodynamic characteristics, airflow distribution, as well as the material from which they are made.

  • The design of these devices consists of a decorative grill behind which an impeller (if the diffuser is inlet) and a static pressure chamber are attached. In adjustable «plafonds» there are elements that direct the air flow.
  • The form. Most ceiling diffusers are round or square in shape. But we should not forget that slot air diffusers are also considered ceiling, and they have a rectangular shape.
  • The dimensions of round air distributors vary from 10 cm to 60 cm. For square ones, from 15×15 cm to 90×90 cm.
  • Mounting method. Installed in a false ceiling, cut into a plasterboard panel or mounted in a stretch ceiling using additional rings.
  • Ceiling diffusers form fan, turbulent, vortex, conical and nozzle air flows.
  • The distribution of air in these devices can vary on different sides (in square supply) or be circular.

Most often, these devices are used in residential and office premises, shops, as well as restaurants and catering places.

Nozzle diffusers

The shape of the nozzle allows you to distribute air over long distancesNozzle air distributors are used to supply clean air streams over long distances. To increase the range of the air flow, nozzle distributors are combined into blocks that can have a different shape and be made of different materials.

By design, nozzle diffusers can have movable and fixed nozzles, which have an optimal profile that provides low aerodynamic drag and low noise levels. This type of air flow distributor is surface mounted using glue, screws or rivets, and some models can be installed directly into a round duct.

These devices are made of anodized aluminum, which allows them to be used for the distribution of heated air and air masses of high humidity. Such devices are used in ventilation systems of industrial enterprises, commercial buildings, parking lots, etc.

Low speed diffusers

These diffusers displace polluted air from the served room.Low-velocity air distributors operate on the principle of polluted air displacement from the serviced premises. They are designed to supply clean air directly to the service area, with a low air flow rate and a small temperature difference between the inflow and the room air mixture. These devices differ in installation method, shape, size and design.

There are several varieties of low-velocity air distributors:

  • Wall.
  • Floor.
  • Embedded.

Floor and wall low velocity diffusers are designed for small, medium and large air flow rates. Most often they are installed under the seats in cinemas, large concert and educational facilities, shops, museums, sports facilities. Built-in, floor-standing devices can be mounted in flights of stairs and steps.

Low speed attachments are made from powder coated metal or anodized aluminium. The device consists of an outer and inner shell and a body with an inlet pipe. Some distributor models can be equipped with rotary nozzles to control the direction of the air flow.

Diffuser calculation

The calculation of air distributors is a rather complicated, but necessary process, which consists in choosing a device that meets the following requirements:

  • The outlet air flow rate must be optimal.
  • The temperature difference of the air flow at the entrance to the working area should be minimal.

Calculation algorithm

  • Initially, the air mixture supply is calculated for a room of a certain size and architectural shape, with a given capacity L p (m3 / h) and a temperature difference of the supply air Δt0 (°C); installation height of the device h (m) and other characteristics of air distribution.
  • According to the permissible parameters of the speed of movement of air masses Ud (m / s) and the temperature difference between the supply air and the air at the entrance to the working area, the speed and amount of air supplied from one diffuser is determined.
  • After that, the required location and number of devices necessary for optimal air distribution in a particular room is calculated.

If you do not have special engineering knowledge, then for the correct calculation of air distributors, contact organizations specializing in this type of activity. If you decide to do the calculations yourself, then use specialized software.


How to figure out why the air conditioner does not blow warm air


5 minutes 5.6k.

The main purpose of an air conditioner is to cool the air so that people do not suffer from the heat on hot summer days. For a long time, the heating function was considered optional and optional, but over time it turned out that it could be very useful, and many manufacturers began to build it into their products. Indeed, at a time when the cold has already set in, but the central heating has not yet turned on, it is the air conditioner with the heating function that can save the day. However, in some cases, the device may start to fail, in which case it is necessary to figure out what is the matter, whether there has been a serious breakdown or some minor defect that you can fix yourself.


How does the heating system work?

To understand why the air conditioner does not heat, you first need to figure out how it can perform such a function, if initially this device was intended only for cooling. Manufacturers of some mobile devices and split systems installed ordinary ceramic heating elements there or placed spiral devices in the system, then the device will work on the same principle as a conventional room heater. However, this option consumes a lot of electricity.

There is another heating method that is used in modern models. In this case, the direction of the normal movement of the refrigerant inside is changed, in connection with which the evaporator and condenser, in fact, begin to change roles and perform the functions of each other. Simply put, working in this way, the device still cools, only not the apartment, but the air on the street, and gives off heat to the room.How the air conditioner works

Safe modes for devices

Before you figure out why the air conditioner does not blow warm air, you should find out if it can perform such a function. Not all devices are able to warm the room in severe frosts, and if the instructions do not contain additional instructions on this matter, then most likely the device can warm the air only at a certain temperature, up to -5 degrees Celsius outside the window. If you start using such an air conditioner in colder weather, you can provoke a number of changes that will lead to problems.

  • Compressor oil may begin to thicken if the unit is turned on at low temperatures. The properties of this substance change, as a result, the device can be started «on a dry start», which can lead to compressor failure. If you use the air conditioner in this mode for a long time, then an important part will quickly wear out and stop working.
  • Sometimes you may notice that the air conditioner, operating in heat transfer mode, suddenly stops heating. In this case, the equipment is trying to correct the situation and may be trying to raise the temperature of the heat exchanger, which, in the presence of cold weather, has become covered with ice. The water formed after melting drains, but does not completely go away, so frost may appear in the pan. This leads to failure of the compressor fan. In addition, ice can significantly damage and deform the heat exchanger, causing depressurization and leakage of refrigerant.
  • If we take into account that the device takes heat from the street, then the lower the temperature, the more difficult it is for it to do this, and the more energy it consumes. As a result, the efficiency of work decreases and it may seem that the equipment does not heat at all if the difference between temperatures reaches about 3 degrees.

Usually, manufacturers provide data in catalogs and indicate the power for heating at a temperature outside the window of 7 degrees Celsius, so you need to take this fact into account when buying.

Do not torment equipment that is not designed for heating in real frosts. It is able to help when it is only slightly cold outside, but it is not suitable for severe cold weather.Operation of the air conditioner for heating

Equipment with winter heating function

There are devices that can function properly even at low temperatures outside. Manufacturers produce such devices, so they can be purchased without any problems, and some craftsmen themselves install special components on a conventional air conditioner, filling it with R410A freon, which fully retains its properties even at low temperatures.

An inverter air conditioner can be used as a winter heater. These devices are quite expensive and are produced by well-known companies. Their technical characteristics and features of the device ensure successful operation at a temperature of -25-30 degrees Celsius.

If the air conditioner does not work for heating, the reasons may be the following factors.

  • The freon pipeline was clogged with an ice plug. If moisture gets into a sealed system for any reason, it can freeze and form a plug that prevents the refrigerant from moving through the system. It is impossible to defrost all this in the winter, heating the highways will also not help in such a situation. You can try switching modes to change the direction of the cooler, creating heat in the block from the outside. If this does not help, then you will have to wait for spring.
  • If there is not enough freon in the system, it will not work. As a rule, this occurs due to depressurization and leakage. Usually in this case, the wizard is called in to find the problem area, vacuumize and refuel the system.
  • Contaminated parts can have a negative impact on the functioning of the device, preventing it from fully performing its functions. This problem will be solved by timely cleaning. The device should be cleaned periodically to prevent dirt from accumulating on the elements, as this also contributes to extending the overall life of the device. In addition, due to dirt, harmful bacteria can multiply, which negatively affects the health of people who are constantly indoors.
  • Sometimes certain components fail, for this reason the operation of the air conditioner is disrupted. Modern devices are equipped with a self-diagnosis system, so you can see the breakdown code on the panel. In this case, it is better to call a specialist who is engaged in the repair of equipment.

Freezing of the heat exchangerIn some cases, even if the air conditioner does not heat up for some time after turning on, you should not immediately start to panic and think about breakdowns. First you need to wait, since turning on the heating mode involves some changes in the course of operation of the device, and this may take time while the system is rebuilt. If the air is too cold outside, and the air conditioner has not yet gained momentum, the room may also be cold for some time, so you will need to wait a bit until everything returns to normal by itself.


Deflector for ventilation pipes: purpose and principle of operation


3 min 2.6k.

Installation of ventilation systems with natural induction in a city apartment or a country house is today recognized as a convenient and profitable option for successful indoor air exchange. One of the disadvantages of such an air exchange system is the decrease in the quality of air exchange in the warm season.


The principle of operation of natural ventilation is air exchange, which occurs due to the difference in air temperature outside the visit and inside. It helps to provide a natural ventilation deflector.

This is best achieved with a significant temperature difference. Due to natural natural processes, cold air descends to the floor, displacing upward, to the ceiling of rooms, streams of warm air masses. It is in the area of ​​u200bu200bthe ceiling that ventilation hoods are located that remove polluted stale air from the room. Ventilation pipe entry systems are located closer to the floor.

An example of a common generic model

The downside of the system is a decrease in the quality of air exchange in the warm season. The temperature difference between indoors and outdoors becomes minimal. In some cases, the temperature outside becomes higher than that in the room. A specially installed natural ventilation deflector helps to force the air masses to exchange places.

Purpose of the device

Deflector in utility room

The main purpose of a practical and convenient deflector for ventilation is to provide air draft of the ventilation system. These practical elements can be used to stabilize the operation of the chimney.

Practical and easy-to-use devices successfully protect the ventilation system and chimney from dirt, rain, snow, midges getting inside.

It is the use of the deflector that ensures the successful operation of ventilation systems with their insufficient level of traction.

Deflector device for ventilation

Such a simple and effective device as a ventilation deflector is an aerodynamic type device equipped with a “cap”. It is most convenient to place it at the highest point on the exhaust ventilation pipe. The task of the device becomes:

  • Creation of uninterrupted draft of the ventilation system
  • Ventilation duct protection
  • Activation of the ventilation system

Grigorovich deflector

The deflector includes:

  • The outer cap is slightly expanded in the lower part and is even over the entire surface
  • lad
  • Brackets that fix the cap
  • A protective cap (umbrella) that prevents precipitation, debris and small insects from entering the ventilation pipe
  • The protective cap can in some cases be supplemented by a protective mesh

Deflector device with protective mesh

Special rings are installed on the top of the cylinder. The cylinders are mounted one on top of the other and a cover must be installed over the top of them.

Types of deflectors for natural ventilation

The device that protects the ventilation from the device and chimneys from contamination can be varied. At the moment, the following deflectors for natural exhaust ventilation systems are on sale:

  • The most popular Grigorovich deflector in use
  • Wolper round
  • Open Astato
  • TsAGI
  • H-shaped type
  • Star Shepard

All these devices work according to the same principles, in which the upper cylinder becomes both a structure for pushing air and an element that guarantees reliable operation of the device by protecting the ventilation system from negative environmental influences, for example, from rain and strong gusts of wind.

Do-it-yourself Grigorovich deflector

Advice: The degree of smoke retraction and protection from the negative effects of the environment of the upper cap of the deflector directly depends on the number of gaps in the cap of this device. This must be taken into account when buying or self-manufacturing a model.

If you have a drawing, you can make a convenient deflector yourself. To do this, you need to use a reliable metal that resists corrosion. When making a drawing, it is required to take as a basis the diameter of the pipe on which the deflector will be installed.

Advice: The material of manufacture should easily withstand the effects of rain and temperature changes. Most often, these devices are made of modern reliable plastic or metal sheets.

If there is no desire to make a deflector with your own hands or you don’t need a drawing, you can buy a device at any hardware store.


Do-it-yourself air conditioner dismantling, or how easy it is


3 min 5.3k.

Do-it-yourself air conditioner dismantling is the operation on which you can save money. But is it really so? The fact is that most people do not know how to do it and, as a result, they get non-working climate control equipment. Air, getting into the split system, oxidizes copper pipes, as a result of which these devices are “killed”.


For the correct removal of climate control equipment, it is necessary to perform some preparatory work, namely, to prepare the necessary tools, shipping containers for the indoor and outdoor unit of the split system. Now it’s time to prepare the conditioner itself.

If you are a home master who does everything on his own, then we recommend reading how to install an air conditioner without the help of professionals.

Preparing climate equipment for shutdown and removal

  1. First of all, you need to unscrew the nuts on the fittings. Beneath them will be closing valves, made under the hex key. In addition, there is a nipple on the gas fitting, to which a pressure gauge must be screwed.
  2. Now you need to turn on the device to the maximum cold. As soon as it starts to supply cold air, the freon supply should be shut off. This is done with a hex in the fluid nipple (the thinner A/C tube).
  3. As soon as warm air begins to enter from the indoor unit, and the pressure gauge shows a vacuum of -1 MPa, then all the freon is pumped into the condensation chamber. At the same time, the second nut on the steam nozzle (thicker tube) must be closed.1 - shut off the freon supply, 2 - close the gas valve
  4. After the liquid and gas fitting is closed, the device is disconnected from the power supply.
  5. The next step is to disconnect the copper tubes of the line. They are not intended for dismantling, so they are simply bitten at a distance of about 15 cm from the attachment point and immediately caulked to prevent dirt, moisture and air from entering the system.
  6. The next step will be cutting and carefully caulking the copper piping on the indoor unit of the split system.We bite the freon line with wire cutters
  7. After that, the wires for connecting to the mains are marked and untwisted and copper nuts are screwed onto the fittings.

The preparation is over, now it remains to dismantle the indoor and outdoor units of the air conditioner.

We remove the internal and external modules

It would seem that now, when all the freon is pumped into the condensation chamber, the main pipes are disconnected from the device, it is not difficult to remove it from the wall. But many people ask: «How to remove the air conditioner from the wall.» There are few difficulties with the outdoor unit of a split system, and even then if it is installed on a balcony or within reach.

Be careful when dismantling the indoor unit - do not damage the evaporator pipesWith the indoor unit of the climate device, everything is much more complicated. The whole catch is that it is almost impossible for an untrained person, especially one who does not have a specialized tool, to cope with the latches of fastening the block to the mounting plate.

When disconnecting and removing the indoor unit of the split system, a particular danger arises due to the possibility of deforming the evaporator pipes, which are located in close proximity to the air conditioner mount.

The dismantling process takes place in several stages

  1. Opening fasteners.
  2. Removal from the mount along the guides of the indoor unit.
  3. Remove the mount itself from the wall.
  4. Packing it for subsequent transportation.

If you are unsure of your abilities or you do not have the necessary tools, then it is better to leave the job of dismantling the split system to professionals.

Removing the outdoor unit of the prepared split system can be done independently only if it is located on your balcony. In all other cases, you will need professional industrial climbers, because it is mounted on the wall of the house.

Removing the climate system is not particularly difficult, but before that, you should carefully consider whether the money saved is worth the lost time and health risks when dismantling it yourself?


how do we know what we breathe?


7 min 29.1k.

When asked why clean air in an apartment is so important, many find it difficult to find an answer to this seemingly simple question. This publication will focus on the purity of the air, its composition and the analysis of air for the presence of harmful substances.

Why is it important to breathe clean air

Breathe clean air
Breathe clean air

Our body receives oxygen, which, with the help of red blood cells, is distributed throughout the body, nourishing the brain. It is oxygen that allows us to live and function normally.

In addition to oxygen, through the lungs, various harmful chemicals and compounds enter our body. Every day, inhaling a mixture of oxygen with toxic substances, metabolic processes in our body are disturbed, the human immune system is suppressed, and the death of brain cells progresses. But if the brain, in our time, is not needed by everyone, then with the lack of immunity, a person becomes vulnerable to viral infections that cause serious and even fatal diseases.

The worst thing is that our children breathe such pollution. Many babies raised in industrial areas have severe allergies, asthma, various skin diseases and thyroid disorders already in infancy. You can read in detail how to choose an air purifier for asthmatics at.

Chemical analysis of the air in many houses located in industrial areas shows the presence of formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, ammonia in the air, several times higher than the permissible concentration.

Those living in clean areas of the city are also exposed to harmful substances.

  • Formaldehyde is actively emitted by furniture made from low-grade chipboard.
  • Carbon monoxide, in huge concentrations, is released during the combustion of organics, landfills.
  • A lot of pollution in our apartments comes from improperly functioning ventilation and air conditioning systems.

Expert opinion

Ask an expert

If you wake up in the morning with a headache, pulmonary diseases become more frequent, irritation of the mucous membranes appears, problems with concentration — you urgently need to analyze the air environment of your home.

«Useful» and «harmful» chemical elements

The chemical composition of the air plays an important role in the life of our body.

The concentration of elements safe for humans

  • Nitrogen — 79%.
  • Oxygen — 20%.
  • Carbon dioxide — 0.04%.
  • Argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, xenon, ozone and radon — 0.94%.

Chemical elements presenting a danger

These substances are present in the atmosphere, but their concentration is extremely low.

  • Ozone.
  • Formaldehyde.
  • Phenol.
  • nitrogen dioxide.
  • Benzene.

If the daily MPC is exceeded, the above syndromes are observed in a person, vomiting and signs of poisoning are possible.

Methods for analyzing air in a closed (residential) room

Air analysis
Air analysis

Many residents of the capital and other large cities are interested in the question of how to check the air in an apartment for the presence of harmful substances. To assess the state of air in residential premises, determine:

  1. Carbon dioxide level. The concentration should be no more than 0.1%.
  2. ammonia concentration.
  3. The presence of organic substances and compounds.
  4. Substances entering the air as a result of the destruction of the structure of polymeric materials.
Gas analyzer Wohler A 550
Gas analyzer Wohler A 550

Research on polymer degradation products has become especially relevant, with a sharp increase in their use in everyday life. Furniture, utensils are made from polymeric materials, polymers are part of building and finishing materials, clothing.

In addition to chemical pollution of air masses, bacteriological pollution may be present. to eliminate it, we advise you to read articles on air purification.

  • Air purifiers on guard of health: , , ,

The content of some substances in the air can be determined by a gas analyzer. Gas analyzers operate using the following air analysis methods:

  • Spectral analysis of gases, thanks to which the device can qualitatively determine the composition of gas mixtures.
  • Electrochemical, which is based on the use of touch sensors with a certain chemical coating.
  • Plasma ionization, used to determine the concentration of hydrocarbons.
  • Chemiluminescent, used to determine the concentration of ozone.
  • Ultraviolet fluorescence is applied to control O2 and H2.
  • Gravimetric, used to determine the concentration of solid particles in gaseous media.

To determine organic substances, more complex devices should be used and the air mixture should be taken for analysis. One of the most effective devices for air analysis is gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection. This device is able to determine the concentration in the air of such dangerous volatile substances as formaldehyde, phenol, xylene, benzene and more than 400 other chemical elements that are the main pollutants.

gas chromatograph
gas chromatograph

For sampling for analysis, the aspiration method is most often used. This method consists in pumping a certain volume of air masses with an aspirator, through absorbers, sorbents, which retain certain compounds in themselves. The sampling procedure is described in the document GOST R ISO 16000-2-2007 «Air of enclosed spaces».

Expert opinion

Ask an expert

It is not always advisable to determine the exact concentration of contaminants. In some cases, it is sufficient to determine the class of substances by which it is possible to draw a conclusion about the total air pollution by these substances and to establish the source of pollution.

To determine the degree of bacterial air pollution, it is necessary to conduct a microbiological analysis of the air. This process can be divided into 4 stages:

  • Sampling for bacterial contamination of the premises.
  • Storage of air samples taken for analysis.
  • Sowing and cultivation of microorganisms.
  • Determination of the quantitative state of bacterial contamination of the air.

Sampling is carried out by the aspiration method described above. Sampling from various surfaces of the room (window sill, tables, upholstered furniture) is carried out by the following methods: flushing, fingerprinting and agar filling.

Instructions for conducting an independent analysis

If you or someone in your family suffers from asthma attacks, spontaneous attacks of dizziness, unexplained respiratory diseases or allergies, then an analysis of the state of the air environment in the apartment is necessary to determine the cause.

  1. Buy a kit for chemical analysis of the air environment. The kit consists of several rapid tests to determine the most common contaminants.
    Air chemistry kit
    Air chemistry kit

    Are you wondering where to buy a ready-made kit?

    Yes, give me a linkNo, I’ll figure it out myself

  2. Examine the air mixture for carbon monoxide using a detector installed in the apartment. In case of detecting CO2 MPC, the device will beep.
  3. Take samples of the air mixture for the presence of radon in it. This gas has neither color nor smell, so its presence in the room can only be determined using a Canary-type detector or a rapid test from the kit. The radon test must be installed indoors, packaged and sent to the laboratory after 3 days. If the results of a laboratory study of tests show 150 Bq / m3 or higher, then high concentrations of radon gas are present in your apartment.
  4. Determine the presence of mold spores in the apartment. As in the previous analysis, the test should be sent to the laboratory for analysis.
  5. Checking air masses for dust mites. The sample test must be sent to the SES laboratory.

After receiving the conclusions, you should immediately contact specialists who will help you find and eliminate the sources of infection.