5 minutes 3k.

A person spends about half of his life at work, where he can be affected by harmful factors: dust, polluted air, high or low temperature indicators of the surrounding air. In addition to the impact on a person, there are some factors that negatively affect the room itself or the technological processes taking place in it — this is the fire hazard of certain substances in the air in high concentrations.

To ensure the safety of the building and create a comfortable microclimate in the production room for personnel, an industrial ventilation system is used.

Basic requirements for these systems

When designing industrial ventilation, specialists must take into account several basic requirements for it at once:

  • Sanitary and hygienic.
  • Acoustic.
  • To fire safety.
  • Operational.
  • Energy saving.
  • Ecological.

An important factor in the design of industrial ventilation systems is their cost, i.e. cost of equipment and commissioning.

Types of industrial ventilation systems

There are several types of industrial ventilation systems:

  1. General exchange systems are systems that are used for the entire room.
  2. Local ventilation systems are used for a specific area.
  3. Local systems are used to remove contaminants and harmful substances, vapors and gases, in places where they are emitted.

In addition, there are still such types of ventilation as: emergency, anti-smoke and technological, which accompanies certain technological operations.

Elements of emergency ventilationAll types of industrial ventilation are divided into two types: natural and mechanical.

For natural ventilation, the movement of air masses is driven by wind or gravity, and for mechanical ventilation, various devices are used: fans, etc. With natural ventilation of the production premises, air flows are used that spontaneously penetrate through various openings, leaks in windows and doors. Their extraction occurs through exhaust ducts. The performance of this type is highly dependent on the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air, pressure drop, wind speed and direction. Deflectors are sometimes used as auxiliary devices for natural ventilation, and for better air exchange and mixing of air flows, the aeration effect is often used in production workshops.

With a mechanical ventilation system, air exchange is carried out through air ducts or channels, using fans. Depending on the direction of the air flow, mechanical ventilation can be supply and exhaust. Industrial exhaust ventilation is arranged in the upper part of the room, and supply — at a height of 1.5-1.8 m from the floor.


In some cases, a mixed type of ventilation is used, due to the large volume of air removed through natural exhaust openings, there is a need to use forced industrial ventilation.

In addition to natural and mechanical ventilation, some enterprises began to use a third type — a combined system. This happens if none of the types of ventilation individually can create an effective air exchange. For example: in a paint shop, along with a general ventilation system, they also introduce a local one, which is installed in places where harmful substances are released, and prevents mixing of air flows, thereby increasing ventilation efficiency with minimal air circulation.

The role of air purification in industrial ventilation systems

Cleaning of polluted air plays a huge role in modern ventilation systems. It comes in several types:

  • Gravity. As a rule, these are dust settling chambers, which are used in industries with strong dust formation. They are used to deposit the largest particles in the air.
  • Inertial, dry type. They can be cyclonic and louvered. They differ in design and compactness, but serve to purify the air from non-sticking dust.
  • Inertial, wet type. Effectively remove dust from the air by humidifying it.
  • fabric filters. They purify the air by accumulating it in a special fabric.
  • Porous air filters tend to accumulate a large amount of contaminants from the air stream in the numerous pores of the filter element.
  • Electrostatic precipitators purify the air from mechanical impurities by means of their electric charge, after which the impurities settle on one of the filter electrodes.

There are sorption-catalytic, acoustic, plasma-catalytic filters that are used to purify air in industrial ventilation systems.

The main stages of industrial ventilation design

The project of the ventilation system of the industrial premisesIn the design of industrial ventilation, the decisive factors that influence the choice of equipment and its installation are:

  1. Calculation of air circulation in each production room.
  2. The main task that the ventilation system must solve.
  3. Localization of emitted harmful substances and its maximum permissible values.
  4. Choice of systems of cleaning of air streams.
  5. Feasibility study of the proposed supply and exhaust equipment.

Designing consists of the following main stages:

  • Preparation of technical specifications. The customer independently or with the help of specialists is engaged in its development. The terms of reference take into account many factors, such as: the layout of production facilities, the material from which the building is made, the thickness of the walls, the number and schedule of personnel, and some features of the technological process.
  • Calculations made by a design engineer of industrial ventilation systems, guided by regulatory documents and existing standards. The calculations include values ​​such as:
    • Air exchange — this is how often the air in the room will be completely replaced with a new one. The main indicator of this value will be the calculation of the required supply air per employee.
    • Climatic parameters for a particular building. Calculations are made separately for the cold season, for the transition period and for the warm season. The customer of the project himself determines in those. task, what microclimatic indicators he would like to receive.
    • Air ducts. Due to the calculation of air ducts, the optimal variant of the material from which they should be made, their sections and shapes is selected.
  • The next design stage is the choice of equipment. This takes into account the economic justification for the feasibility of using one or another type of equipment, previously made calculations, features of the layout of the premises and the technological process.
  • The final stage of designing the ventilation of an industrial facility is the preparation of drawings, diagrams, graphs and explanatory notes. Based on this, the design engineer draws up a feasibility study for the entire project.

The correct design of an industrial ventilation system for a specific production is an extremely important and responsible step, which determines the creation of a comfortable microclimate for personnel, economical energy consumption, etc. In order to avoid inefficient operation of ventilation and unnecessary financial costs, we strongly recommend that you contact only specialists to carry out all calculations and create a project.


Оставьте комментарий