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Nowadays, there are more and more places where it is required to observe the exact temperature regime of the air. These are all kinds of laboratories, server rooms, rooms with a large accumulation of computer equipment, rooms containing certain types of flora that do not tolerate environmental changes, etc. But conventional climate equipment does not always cope with the tasks set, so precision air conditioners are used in such rooms.
A precision air conditioner is a special highly reliable type of climate technology, the main feature of which is the ability to work for a long time and maintain certain air parameters in the room with particular accuracy. A precision air conditioner can not only cool the air, but also work to heat and humidify the room.
Air can be supplied in several ways: frontally, from above or from the bottom of the panel. From the top of the unit, air is supplied directly or through air ducts connected to it. Air can also be supplied from the bottom of the indoor unit of the air conditioner. In such cases, raised floors are installed in the room, thanks to which a uniform distribution of air mass is ensured.
Types and types of precision climatic equipment
Such climatic equipment is available in several types of execution:
- Cabinet, with separate external and internal block.
- Ceiling execution with separate blocks.
Cabinet climate equipment, as a rule, has high power and good cooling capacity. They are used in large rooms and, thanks to the controller, effectively eliminate «hot» and stagnant air zones in the room.
Monoblock technology is compact and therefore used in small spaces. Most often, such equipment is used to maintain the specified air parameters in remote access nodes and mobile points of telecommunications equipment.
The ceiling device is considered the most efficient and economical due to the distribution of the intake and supply of air flows. The intake is carried out under the ceiling, and the supply is in the lower part of the room, directly to the equipment, so that the air does not mix.
The device and principle of operation of these climate systems
The principle of operation of precision air conditioners directly depends on their design. Consider the most common types of this climate equipment.
- Freon precision air-cooled air conditioner. The operation of such equipment is practically no different from the operation of a conventional split system.
- With the help of a sensor installed in the internal module of this equipment, when the air parameters change, the controller starts the compressor, which, during operation, compresses the gaseous freon entering the condenser side.
- In it, under the influence of pressure and cooling by fans, it passes into a liquid form.
- In this form, the gas passes through a throttling device, where its pressure drops sharply.
- In the evaporator, the refrigerant from a liquid state again turns into vapor, taking heat from the air and giving the heat exchanger cold from the outside air.
- The cold heat exchanger is blown by a fan, thereby cooling the air flow.
- Double-circuit precision equipment. In such a system, the freon circuit gives off heat to the water circuit, which removes heat through a heat exchanger located outside. Despite the fact that this method provides significant energy savings, the installation of precision air conditioners of this design is quite complicated and financially expensive.
Advantages and disadvantages that may affect the choice of equipment
The main advantages of this technique include:
- The highest accuracy of work in the given climatic parameters. Such equipment can maintain the temperature in the room, with an accuracy of 0.1 ° C, and the humidity level up to ± 2%. In addition, such equipment is able to effectively perform the assigned tasks in the temperature range from -50 C° to + 50 C°.
- Reliability. They can operate continuously, with round-the-clock operation, for 15-20 years. But keeping them running smoothly requires regular maintenance of precision air conditioners and an installed system to restart in the event of a power failure.
- High efficiency and energy efficiency of this technique. Such systems, thanks to the use of modern technologies, have a high efficiency and are able to process a large amount of air in a short time with low energy consumption.
- Possibility of automated control and remote control over the set parameters.
The video provides a solution for a data center with a large heat dissipation.
The main disadvantages of such climate technology
- Such climate systems are reliable, high-tech and expensive. The precision air conditioner circuit includes quite a lot of complex equipment for monitoring and controlling the system, air filtration and humidification elements, so this climate technology cannot be cheap.
- The disadvantages of this technique include the difficulty in finding qualified service personnel. Paradoxically, it is very difficult to find a specialist in the repair and maintenance of this equipment even in large cities, not to mention the periphery.
- Another disadvantage is their narrow specialization. They are used only if other systems cannot provide sufficient reliability and efficiency, although in some cases their use cannot be dispensed with.
Scope of air conditioners
Despite the fact that they are practically not used for air treatment in residential premises, the scope of precision air conditioners is quite large:
- Telecommunication premises.
- Data collection and processing centers.
- Server rooms.
- Chemical and bacteriological laboratories.
- Operating rooms and intensive care units.
- Museums and libraries.
The installation of such climate control equipment is similar to the installation of a column or monoblock air conditioner. Regardless of the complexity of the installation, installation of precision air conditioners, setting up the operation of the system and subsequent maintenance should be carried out exclusively by professionals.