The climate system includes equipment that necessarily performs the functions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Additional functions such as humidification, dehumidification, ionization, etc. are also possible.
The main equipment is complex and the most important, as well as large and expensive units, such as central air conditioners, chillers (refrigerators), air handling units, monoblock roof air conditioners, fan coil units (indoor air conditioner units).
For the climate system, additional equipment of various types is used. These can be components that link systems together (for example, pipelines, air ducts, automation systems). Also, this equipment performs additional functions (heaters, separate fans, air curtains). Also in the ventilation, air conditioning and heating system there are such additional devices as fittings (taps, valves), ventilation grilles and diffusers, air ducts, fans, pumps, expansion tanks, dehumidifiers and humidifiers.
But it is impossible to make a clear classification due to the wide variety of additional devices and products. These are all the elements that the designer uses as parts of the designer when compiling the climate system for each specific building. Let’s take a closer look at the main equipment for air conditioning systems.
A chiller or refrigeration machine cools or heats the water so that the pump then pumps this water through the pipelines. Fancoil units, which are already located in each air-conditioned room, are connected to this piping system. The length of the route laid between the fan coils and the chiller can be anything, as it depends on the power of the pump. Therefore, chillers are used in commercial office and residential buildings, where there are many rooms.
There are chillers with air and water cooling of the condenser, outdoor and indoor installation, as well as heat pumps, the functions of which include not only cooling, but also heating water.
The chiller can also be installed together with a central air conditioner (CC). With this option, the main part of the cold water is supplied from the chiller to the Central Committee, and the remaining water goes to the fan coil units. At the same time, the Central Committee cools the bulk of the supply air, and fan coil units make precise temperature control in each room.
Fancoil is the indoor unit of the air conditioning system, which is installed indoors. In terms of their structure, as well as in appearance, fan coil units are similar to indoor units of split systems. But the difference is that water is used as a coolant, which comes from a local boiler house, chiller or other equipment.
Fancoils can stand on the floor, attached to the ceiling or wall, built into a false ceiling.
Central air conditioner
The central air conditioner is necessary for technological or comfort air conditioning, which is produced through a duct system in one large or several rooms. At the same time, it is possible to maintain the same microclimate parameters in all rooms. Therefore, it is better to install the Central Committee in industrial and office buildings, where the same centralized air conditioning is needed, and not individual.
The central air conditioner is made up of several modules, which are selected depending on the needs of the enterprise. These modules can perform the following functions:
— air intake for the purpose of its further processing — it can be both outdoor fresh air and air from other rooms;
— air extract connected to the system of exhaust ventilation ducts;
— air heating using electric heating elements or hot water that comes from a chiller, central heating or a local boiler house;
— cooling by freon evaporation in the heat exchanger or by cold water coming from the chiller;
— heat recovery (recovery), in which the air exhausted from the building through the exhaust cools or heats the supply air, depending on the season. Thanks to this, it is possible to reduce the cost of cooling or heating the air by up to 90%;
— air filtration;
— air humidification;
— Supply of treated air to the premises through a system of ventilation ducts.
Roof air conditioner (roof-top)
The roof conditioner is a monoblock which put on a roof of the building. Such an air conditioner allows you to simultaneously ventilate the premises and regulate the air temperature in them. Conditioned air enters the premises through a system of ventilation ducts.
Roof air conditioners are usually used for ventilation and air conditioning of large buildings with large halls: supermarkets, shopping centers, conference halls, sports facilities.
The rooftop air conditioner can produce not only cooling, but also heating, filtering fresh or exhaust air. But such air conditioners do not allow adjusting the air parameters individually in each room and utilizing heat, but they do not spoil the appearance of the building and are very compact.