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To date, a huge number of production processes are carried out with the release of harmful substances, dust, various suspensions into the air, which adversely affect the equipment and the health of personnel.
Previously, workers who were in the area of polluted air were given personal protective equipment, which were respirators with conventional filters, but such protection was ineffective. The filter elements clogged very quickly, and the worker was constantly distracted by their replacement. But recently, many enterprises began to use a more advanced system for cleaning air masses — an aspiration system — to clean the air.
The air aspiration system is one of the types of ventilation designed to remove from the air with subsequent disposal of various solid particles, suspensions, from the working areas of industrial premises. Due to the highly efficient aspiration of industrial premises, the concentration of various contaminants in the air is significantly reduced, and, accordingly, the negative impact on the human body. Thanks to high-quality cleaning and disposal of pollution, the environmental situation around industrial enterprises has significantly improved.
The main structural elements are:
- A fan to create an air flow, with which polluted air masses are removed.
- Pipe, for transporting polluted air to the place of purification and disposal.
- A filter element that removes various solid particles, suspension and gases from the air.
- Capturing device. Depending on the place of application, such devices can be exhaust hoods or suction devices, which are located directly at the places of contamination.
One of the main elements in aspiration installations is a transport air duct. It is made using spiral-wound technology, outwardly, somewhat reminiscent of a household vacuum cleaner hose. Unlike dust extraction ventilation, air ducts for aspiration systems are made strongly inclined. This is done so that they are less clogged with solid suspensions in air masses.
Types of dust removal equipment
Most industrial enterprises use two main types of aspiration units — these are modular or monoblock.
- Modular aspiration systems, which are produced according to individual customer requirements, and, as a rule, they consist of fans of various capacities, separators and air ducts.
- Monoblock dust removal devices are mobile autonomous devices that are located in close proximity to the place of pollution. Such devices are mass-produced, which is the reason for their relatively low price.
In addition, aspiration equipment can be either direct-flow, which, after cleaning the air masses, releases them into the atmosphere, or recirculation, designed to return the purified air back to the room.
What purifies the air?
In order for the air to be purified with the highest quality, a large number of various filter elements and devices operating on the gravitational principle, the so-called cyclones and separators, are used. Folter is a well-known company that manufactures a wide range of different filters for aspiration equipment. The range of the company includes:
- Cyclones. They purify the air due to centrifugal force. Solid particles of contaminants in the air, hitting the walls of the device, are deposited in the receiving container.
- Roof filters. These devices are designed for high-quality cleaning of the air mixture with its subsequent return to the room.
- Sleeve filters. They are used in air aspiration systems to separate solid components from air-dust suspension. They can capture up to 99% of contaminants whose particles exceed 1 micron.
In addition, modern aspiration devices use: cartridge, cartridge, electric filters, wet dust collectors, as well as devices for removing wood dust.
Scope of dust extraction systems
Aspiration equipment is an integral part of ventilation systems in enterprises:
- mining industry.
- In metallurgy and enterprises specializing in metalworking.
- In food production.
- At the enterprises of the chemical industry and in the production of tobacco products.
- In woodworking enterprises and in the manufacture of furniture.
Calculation of equipment for removing pollutants from the air
Even the most perfect installation will not work effectively without proper calculation. The calculation of an aspiration system is a complex process that takes into account many factors and conditions. Of course, only professionals should be engaged in the design of these devices, since this requires knowledge and experience.
Important! Alteration of the aspiration system, in case of its incorrect calculation, will require significant financial investments from you, so trust the calculations and design only to professionals.
If you yourself decide to calculate the aspiration system at your enterprise, then you can use special software, of which there are more than a dozen on the Internet.
In order to understand how complex the calculations of the aspiration system are, you can look at just some of the factors that affect the data. What you need to know for the correct calculation of the aspiration system at a particular enterprise:
- First of all, you should find out the air flow and pressure loss at each suction point. These data can be obtained from reference literature and normative documents for aspiration.
- Having determined all the costs, you should add them up and divide the obtained data by the volume of the aspirated room.
- Now you should find out the air velocity in the aspiration system for various types of materials. These data can also be taken from the reference literature.
- The type of dust collector can be determined from the performance data of a particular dust collector. This can be calculated by adding the air flow at all aspiration points, and adding 5% to the resulting value.
- Calculate the diameter of the air ducts required for specific conditions. It is determined according to the table, for each section individually, taking into account the air flow and the speed of its movement.
- It is necessary to design the exact installation location of the fan itself and the selected filter element, provide for the possibility of locating air ducts, with a place for their revision. There are some more very complex indicators, which it makes no sense to talk about, since understanding some processes requires not just engineering, but specialized education.
Due to the need for accurate data for the production of an aspiration system, we strongly recommend that you do not engage in amateur activities, but turn to professionals.
Advantages when using suction units
The use of an aspiration system in an enterprise has its advantages:
- Constructive simplicity and reliability of the devices included in the dust removal system.
- Compatibility. Aspiration units can work with any production equipment.
- Environmental friendliness. Prevent environmental pollution.
- Improving the working conditions of the staff.
The disadvantages include a rather high power consumption and rapid wear of moving parts during prolonged operation.