6 min 805

To purify the air, filling it with the healing power of medicinal plants and aromatic oils, was sought by representatives of ancient civilizations who lived thousands of years ago. Various incense was used not only for the sake of pleasant smells — many trees and smaller plants, being natural filters, had healing powers, destroying pathogens in the human respiratory organs and preventing the spread of dangerous diseases and epidemics, clearing the space of harmful gases and small inclusions, increasing the level oxygen. And in our time, aromatic substances are widely used for therapy sessions.

Today, modern electrical air purifiers for the home are successfully used to purify the air. Thanks to the latest technology, small appliances are highly efficient, successfully cleaning the air in rooms up to 100 cubic meters. m or more. Their impact on the health of people suffering from allergies and respiratory diseases is especially effective. Devices of the new generation are able to carry out deep bactericidal cleaning, preventing the spread of viral infections, destroying unpleasant odors, creating a special healing microclimate in the room.

Types of cleaners

Household air purifiers consist of two main components — a fan and a filter system. Ventilation devices as part of the purifier may differ in power and design and affect the volume of air being cleaned. The main role in ensuring the quality of cleaning belongs to filters. Some modern models are equipped with four types of filters at the same time, ranging from a simple mechanical filter to complex deep filters.

The simplest design is distinguished by cleaners with one or two stages of mechanical cleaning, which is provided by fine-mesh plastic filters that retain mechanical particles (dust, pollen, animal hair, etc.) with a size of 100 microns or more. Such filters are easy to maintain: in order to remove accumulated dirt, it is enough to rinse them with clean running water once every 2-3 months. Two-stage systems — preliminary and fine cleaning – in devices of the latest generations, they are supplemented with systems deep cleaning. All cleaners necessarily contain mechanical filters that carry out preliminary cleaning before subsequent stages. It is they who allow you to save deep cleaning filters from premature failure.

There are also original «air washers» purifiers-humidifiers that drive air through wet cartridges, thus trapping dust particles.

The designs of cleaners have been significantly improved in recent years due to the introduction of modern high technologies. Before choosing a cleaner, you should decide what degree of cleaning is needed in the house.

According to the principle of action, cleaners are distinguished:

  • mechanical
  • carbon adsorption
  • with HEPA filters
  • photocatalytic
  • ionic
  • electrostatic
  • ultraviolet
  • ultrasonic

Cleaning methods

Each of these devices has its own characteristics, based on the cleaning methods used.

Photo: Multi-level filtration systemOne of the methods known for a long time is the use of adsorption filters based on activated carbon. The use of carbon filters in cleaners allows you to remove pathogenic toxins and microorganisms, unpleasant odors, providing effective cleaning of polluted indoor air. However, an activated carbon filter is not enough to remove nitrogen oxides. It should be borne in mind that by retaining harmful impurities, activated carbon quickly loses its chemical properties, reacting with them. Therefore, washing such a filter is impractical — after 3-6 months it must be changed.

The most commonly used air cleaners are electrostatic filters-ionizers. Their action is based on the ionization of air, which occurs as a result of a corona electric discharge. Air purification in the house with the help of ionizers occurs due to the fact that when air is sucked into the purifier, microparticles and microorganisms pass through positively charged plates, receive a positive charge, linger and settle on negatively charged electrode plates. The cleaned air is returned to the room. Filter plates after repeated use are subject to thorough washing. At the same time, during a corona discharge, space ionization occurs, oxygen decomposes into ozone ions, which have a disinfecting effect on the environment. Considering that a significant amount of electricity is consumed during the operation of the ionizer, and ozone in large quantities can be harmful to human health, the operation of the device must be carried out with a certain frequency specified in the operating instructions.

HEPA filter was originally developed for installation on a medical air purifier. How such a device works can be explained on numerous samples that are effective both at home and in medical institutions. Filters are thin corrugated layers of paper that effectively trap microparticles of dust, allergens up to 0.3 microns in size. Today, almost any medical air purifier contains a HEPA filter. They got their name from the abbreviation HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air). The high quality of filters is confirmed by long service life — from one to three years.

Catalytic type filters are installed on an ultraviolet air purifier, one of the most efficient devices. The principle of operation of the filter is based on the irradiation of contaminated particles passing through the device with ultraviolet radiation. Not a single microparticle, or living microorganism, or virus larger than 1 micron will penetrate through catalytic air purifiers. UV filters have a long service life (up to 6 years, depending on the manufacturer’s warranty). Due to the unique properties, this type of purifiers are used in laboratories, medical institutions, including as air purifiers for asthmatics.

The original device has an ultrasonic air purifier with an ultrasonic generator. By emitting ultrasonic waves, the generator contributes to the increased vibration of dust and microorganisms that enter the cleaner. The vibration of dust grains ensures that they stick together, increasing in size. When passing through a mechanical filter, they easily linger on its surface. The wall-mounted air purifier is especially convenient — without taking up much space, the device effectively cleans polluted air in the upper part of the room, where masses of exhaust air rise.

How to make a choice

Photo: Question about the right choice?When choosing a cleaner for the home, many pay attention to the price. The importance of this indicator cannot be denied. When choosing an inexpensive and effective device for yourself, you need to get detailed advice from a specialist and decide on the answers to the questions:

  • How polluted is the air in your home or office?
  • What degree of cleaning will be sufficient for you?
  • Do you need a device with an automatic control system (automation and innovation will significantly increase the cost of the product).
  • How much does it cost to replace a cartridge or filter and how often do they need to be changed?
  • The amount of power consumption of the device;
  • Noise level.

By answering these simple questions, you can make the right choice.


Useful Features

Modern cleaners are equipped with many innovations and convenient features that make them easier to use:

  • Adjustment of processing modes by power and fan speed;
  • Adjustment of the noise level of the device;
  • Filter contamination level indicators;
  • Liquid crystal displays;
  • Additional aromatization;
  • Remote control of the cleaner;
  • Timer.


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