Ven­ti­la­tion (from lat. ven­ti­la­tio — ven­ti­la­tion) — this is an adjustable air exchange in the premis­es, cre­at­ing a state of the air envi­ron­ment favor­able for a per­son (air com­po­si­tion, tem­per­a­ture, humid­i­ty, etc.), as well as a set of tech­ni­cal means that ensure such air exchange.

  • What is a ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem for?

  • Clas­si­fi­ca­tion of ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems

  • Nat­ur­al and mechan­i­cal ven­ti­la­tion

  • Sup­ply and exhaust ven­ti­la­tion

  • Stacked and monoblock ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems

What is a ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem for?

First of all, ven­ti­la­tion must ensure the cor­rect com­po­si­tion of the air. Human beings con­sume oxy­gen and release car­bon diox­ide. Healthy air for breath­ing should con­tain at least 21% oxy­gen, while a decrease in the con­cen­tra­tion of oxy­gen in the air can cause a feel­ing of stuffi­ness, malaise, and a headache. A con­stant lack of oxy­gen reduces effi­cien­cy, adverse­ly affects human health, and accel­er­ates the aging process.

In addi­tion, sources of air pol­lu­tion are usu­al­ly present indoors — build­ing mate­ri­als con­tain­ing asbestos, chip­board fur­ni­ture, house­hold chem­i­cals, gas stoves. In order to pre­vent a high con­cen­tra­tion of harm­ful sub­stances in the air and a sig­nif­i­cant decrease in the oxy­gen con­tent, the air in the liv­ing room must be com­plete­ly renewed at least once per hour (the air exchange rate per hour is 1). In rooms with spe­cial func­tions, the air exchange rate should be greater, for exam­ple, in the kitchen, the air exchange rate per hour should be at least three, in a room intend­ed for smok­ing — 10.

Mod­ern ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems not only renew the air in the room, they can also puri­fy the sup­plied air, humid­i­fy it, heat or cool it to the desired tem­per­a­ture, cre­at­ing the most com­fort­able con­di­tions for the per­son in the room.

Clas­si­fi­ca­tion of ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems

Ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems are clas­si­fied accord­ing to the fol­low­ing main fea­tures:

  • by way of air move­ment nat­ur­al or arti­fi­cial (mechan­i­cal) ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem;

  • by appoint­ment — sup­ply or exhaust;

  • by ser­vice area — local or gen­er­al exchange;

  • by design — type-set­ting or monoblock.

Nat­ur­al and mechan­i­cal ven­ti­la­tion

nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion — this is a ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem that does not con­tain elec­tri­cal equip­ment (fans, motors, dri­ves, etc.). The move­ment of air in it occurs due to the dif­fer­ence in tem­per­a­ture, pres­sure of out­door air and air in the room, wind pres­sure. Nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion exists in all high-rise build­ings — it is a sys­tem of ver­ti­cal chan­nels (air ducts) with ven­ti­la­tion grilles in kitchens and bath­rooms. The air ducts are brought to the roof, where spe­cial noz­zles are installed on them — deflec­tors, which enhance the suc­tion of air due to the force of the wind. The inflow of fresh air should be car­ried out through the cracks in the doors and win­dow open­ings, open vents. The effi­cien­cy of nat­ur­al ven­ti­la­tion depends very much on ran­dom fac­tors — wind direc­tion, air tem­per­a­ture. In addi­tion, over time, air ducts become clogged with dirt, dust, debris, and the flow of fresh air is notice­ably reduced after plas­tic win­dows are installed in apart­ments.

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AT mechan­i­cal ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems equip­ment and elec­tri­cal appli­ances are used that allow mov­ing air over con­sid­er­able dis­tances, as well as, if nec­es­sary, clean­ing and heat­ing it. Mechan­i­cal sys­tems are able to pro­vide the desired lev­el of air exchange, regard­less of exter­nal con­di­tions, but they are not cheap, and the cost of elec­tric­i­ty for their oper­a­tion can be quite large.

In prac­tice, the so-called mixed ven­ti­la­tion, i.e., both nat­ur­al and mechan­i­cal. So, for exam­ple, some­times it is enough to install small fans ven­ti­la­tion ducts in the kitchen and bath­room. There are “smart” fans with auto­mat­ic con­trol, for exam­ple, a bath­room fan that turns on when the humid­i­ty lev­el exceeds a set lim­it, a toi­let fan that con­nects to a light switch. And to improve the sup­ply ven­ti­la­tion, you can install it in the win­dow fit­tings or in the wall. sup­ply valves, through which, due to the dif­fer­ence in pres­sure and tem­per­a­ture, air from the street will flow. The valve is usu­al­ly equipped with a diaphragm that reg­u­lates the amount of incom­ing air. It may also con­tain a fil­ter to puri­fy the incom­ing air, reduce the noise lev­el.

In each spe­cif­ic project, only a spe­cial­ist will be able to deter­mine which type of ven­ti­la­tion is the most effi­cient, more eco­nom­i­cal and tech­ni­cal­ly ratio­nal.

Sup­ply and exhaust ven­ti­la­tion

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sup­ply sys­tem serves to sup­ply fresh air into the room. Sup­ply air can be sub­ject­ed to spe­cial treat­ment — clean­ing, heat­ing, humid­i­fi­ca­tion. Exhaust sys­tem removes exhaust air from the room. Usu­al­ly, both sup­ply and exhaust sys­tems are pro­vid­ed in the room; their per­for­mance must be bal­anced, oth­er­wise under or over pres­sure will be gen­er­at­ed, result­ing in an unpleas­ant “slam­ming doors” effect.

The premis­es may also be pro­vid­ed with only an exhaust or only sup­ply ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem. In this case, air enters the room from the out­side or from adja­cent rooms through spe­cial open­ings. It is also removed from this room to the out­side or flows into adja­cent rooms. Both sup­ply and exhaust ven­ti­la­tion can be arranged at the work­place (local ven­ti­la­tion), or for the entire room (gen­er­al ven­ti­la­tion).

Stacked and monoblock ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems

The most com­mon are stacked ven­ti­la­tion sys­tems. They are assem­bled as a con­struc­tor from sep­a­rate ele­ments (fan, fil­ter, silencer, air ducts, etc.), and these ele­ments can be from dif­fer­ent man­u­fac­tur­ers. The type-set­ting sys­tem can be designed for any room, from a small apart­ment to an entire build­ing, but only a spe­cial­ist can cor­rect­ly cal­cu­late and design it.

Monoblock instal­la­tion — this is a ready-made ven­ti­la­tion sys­tem, locat­ed entire­ly in one build­ing. In a monoblock sys­tem, a heat exchang­er is often installed — a device in which heat exchange of cold sup­ply air with warm air removed from the room takes place, which saves from 30 to 90% of elec­tric­i­ty. Instal­la­tion of a monoblock sys­tem takes sev­er­al hours and does not require a large amount of con­sum­ables, but it will not be pos­si­ble to fit it into every room.

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