Chiller is a climate control unit that is focused on industrial applications. High power equipment is used to cool liquids or maintain a set temperature in large rooms.
Where are chillers used?
The functional features of the chillers determined the scope of their application:
- Industrial production and workshops that need serious cooling to work;
- Pharmaceutical, medical and related fields where a certain temperature of equipment and goods is needed;
- Production of food and drinks that require refrigeration according to technology;
- Maintaining low temperatures on skating rinks and ice sports grounds.
Thanks to the unit’s performance, which reaches 9 MW, one outdoor unit is enough to provide a comfortable microclimate in a small office building or a private house. When used for industrial purposes, several separate devices will be needed.
What is the working principle of the chiller?
The operation of the equipment is based on physical principles similar to the functioning of standard split systems: energy consumption for heat exchange.
Chillers, unlike home air conditioners, use water, a solution of ethylene glycol, calcium chloride or sodium instead of freon.
First, the refrigerant is compressed and the evaporation process begins. The mixture of the remaining liquid and vapor moves to the condenser, which directs the generated heat outward, cooling the compound and converting it back into a liquid state.
At the next stage, the refrigerant enters the low pressure chamber, where it again passes into a gaseous state. For this process, the thermal energy contained in the refrigerant is used. During boiling, heat is taken away by the evaporator, and the liquid is cooled.
What is a water chiller?
Standard climate systems use air to remove excess heat from the condensers, but a number of chillers are water-cooled. Such devices have the following characteristics:
- A number of design differences, the main among which is the design of the heat exchanger;
- Consume less refrigerant due to reduced internal volume;
- Improved heat transfer efficiency compared to air-cooled models;
- Smaller dimensions allow them to be placed indoors.
Despite the advantages, it is impossible to completely abandon the air heat removal system. Water systems require the installation of additional filtering equipment and cooling elements, which increases the initial cost of the installation.
What is a non-condensing chiller?
The design of the devices in this group allows you to use the space with greater benefit. The condenser in them is a separate unit, which is taken out separately from the body of the main equipment. This allows you to install it outside the building and use the ambient air for cooling. There are two modifications of non-condensing chillers: with an integrated ventilation system and based on water circulation.
The first option is equipped with an axial fan that pumps air that lowers the temperature. Models of this type are characterized by relatively low cost and the possibility of installation in open areas or in technical rooms. A remote condenser reduces the load on the roof or allows the use of chillers in conditions where it is impossible to install on the roof of a building.
For water-cooled chillers, third-party running water sources are used. Devices are independent of environmental conditions or season. The generated heat can be used for space heating. The disadvantage is the high cost and demanding quality and frequency of maintenance.
What is a freecooling chiller?
Free cooling (English natural cooling) — air conditioning systems that use the ambient temperature. The design provides for the replacement of the evaporator with a drycooler, which combines natural cooling with the operation of axial fans, and the installation of an additional cooling circuit, where an antifreeze liquid circulates.
Equipment of this type is the best option for cold climate conditions. It reduces energy consumption by
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