An integral part of comfort is a favorable microclimate, which is formed under a certain combination of environmental parameters. These parameters include temperature, relative humidity of air, its composition, mobility, etc.
The task of heating is to maintain the temperature inside the premises at a level that ensures a comfortable stay of people during the cold season. Such conditions contribute to the well-being of a person and have a beneficial effect on his performance. The choice of heating system depends on the source of heat, the size of the building and premises, technical and economic calculations and other factors.
Water heating can be used in shopping centers, freestanding or built-in stores. The source of heat for a water heating system can be a CHP plant that supplies heat to the entire area, or a local boiler house. In the boiler room, the central place is occupied by the boiler itself. Hot water is supplied to the heating devices through a piping system.
Radiators and convectors can be used as heating devices. The traditional heating system can be supplemented with a water heated floor system. Underfloor heating is usually installed in places of rest for buyers and playgrounds for children in large shopping malls, in the halls of shops, to heat the steps of the porch to avoid icing.
If the store is planned to be air-conditioned using the “chiller-fan coils” system, then it can be used for heating during the cold season. This requires a chiller with heat pump function. Another option is the possibility of connecting the hydraulic air conditioning system to the heating substation of the building. Thus, in the summer, the fan coil units will be supplied with water cooled in the chiller (or an antifreeze solution), and in the winter, the fan coil system will be connected to the heating point.
Water heaters: all models
Air heating is used in sales areas of large volumes, especially with high ceilings. The air is heated in the supply units of the central air conditioning systems and enters the premises through the air duct systems. Such heating can work in conjunction with water. The heat capacity of air is relatively small, so rather large volumes of air are required for heating. To save energy in air heating systems, recirculation is used (part of the air from the premises is mixed with outdoor air and distributed through the supply air ducts). In the warm period of the year, such a system can be used for air conditioning trading floors. To do this, ventilation units must be equipped with sections for air cooling, and the volume of incoming outside air must be at least 20–30 m 3 /h Recirculation is not allowed to be used in the trading floors of stores in which, for example, odorous substances are present.
To prevent cold air entering the store in winter, it is planned to install an air-thermal curtain at the entrance from the street or in the vestibule. The curtain creates a flat powerful airflow that separates zones with different temperatures on both sides of open entrance doors. Air curtains can be water or electric.
Electric heating finds its application, as a rule, in small shops, when it is difficult or impossible to organize water heating. When heating with electricity, electric convectors can be used, which are easily mounted on the wall and have a modern appearance. Oil radiators and fan heaters are indispensable for heating small trade pavilions and tents, for which the power grid is the only source of energy. Infrared heaters, on the other hand, can be used for heating large volume sales areas.
An electric underfloor heating system can also be used to heat the store. In this case, a special electrical cable is laid in the floor, and not a coil of pipes. Electric underfloor heating is easier to install and maintain than water, because. does not require a circulation pump, mixing unit, balancing fittings, etc. Its significant disadvantage is the relatively high cost of electricity.
To heat the store during the off-season, you can use an air conditioner with a heat pump function, i.e. able to work in the reverse cycle: transfer heat from the street to the room. Almost every manufacturer of air conditioners has similar models. This method is most effective at an outdoor temperature of + 3–5 o C. Under such conditions, the conversion rate of electricity into heat is 2.2–2.6, i.e. at the cost of, for example, 100 watts of electricity, 220–260 watts of the body is generated. When the outdoor temperature is below 0 o With the conversion index approaches unity, i.e. becomes close to the mode of direct use of electricity for air heating.
It must be said that the solution to the issue of heating a store is an individual and multivariate matter. Therefore, it is best to resolve this issue with the help of professionals. You should not save on design and installation work, as well as on the quality of equipment and components. Such a reduction in capital costs may subsequently result in unplanned expenses or unsatisfactory performance of engineering systems.