An inte­gral part of com­fort is a favor­able micro­cli­mate, which is formed under a cer­tain com­bi­na­tion of envi­ron­men­tal para­me­ters. These para­me­ters include tem­per­a­ture, rel­a­tive humid­i­ty of air, its com­po­si­tion, mobil­i­ty, etc.

The task of heat­ing is to main­tain the tem­per­a­ture inside the premis­es at a lev­el that ensures a com­fort­able stay of peo­ple dur­ing the cold sea­son. Such con­di­tions con­tribute to the well-being of a per­son and have a ben­e­fi­cial effect on his per­for­mance. The choice of heat­ing sys­tem depends on the source of heat, the size of the build­ing and premis­es, tech­ni­cal and eco­nom­ic cal­cu­la­tions and oth­er fac­tors.

  • Water heat­ing

  • air heat­ing

  • Elec­tric heat­ing

Water heat­ing

Water heat­ing can be used in shop­ping cen­ters, free­stand­ing or built-in stores. The source of heat for a water heat­ing sys­tem can be a CHP plant that sup­plies heat to the entire area, or a local boil­er house. In the boil­er room, the cen­tral place is occu­pied by the boil­er itself. Hot water is sup­plied to the heat­ing devices through a pip­ing sys­tem.

Store heating

Radi­a­tors and con­vec­tors can be used as heat­ing devices. The tra­di­tion­al heat­ing sys­tem can be sup­ple­ment­ed with a water heat­ed floor sys­tem. Under­floor heat­ing is usu­al­ly installed in places of rest for buy­ers and play­grounds for chil­dren in large shop­ping malls, in the halls of shops, to heat the steps of the porch to avoid icing.

If the store is planned to be air-con­di­tioned using the “chiller-fan coils” sys­tem, then it can be used for heat­ing dur­ing the cold sea­son. This requires a chiller with heat pump func­tion. Anoth­er option is the pos­si­bil­i­ty of con­nect­ing the hydraulic air con­di­tion­ing sys­tem to the heat­ing sub­sta­tion of the build­ing. Thus, in the sum­mer, the fan coil units will be sup­plied with water cooled in the chiller (or an antifreeze solu­tion), and in the win­ter, the fan coil sys­tem will be con­nect­ed to the heat­ing point.

Popular Models

Alu­minum radi­a­tors Glob­al ISEO

Bimet­al radi­a­tor Russ­ian radi­a­tor RRC500*80BM

Steel tubu­lar radi­a­tors KZTO “Radi­a­tor” RS and RSK

Water heaters: all mod­els

air heat­ing

Air heat­ing is used in sales areas of large vol­umes, espe­cial­ly with high ceil­ings. The air is heat­ed in the sup­ply units of the cen­tral air con­di­tion­ing sys­tems and enters the premis­es through the air duct sys­tems. Such heat­ing can work in con­junc­tion with water. The heat capac­i­ty of air is rel­a­tive­ly small, so rather large vol­umes of air are required for heat­ing. To save ener­gy in air heat­ing sys­tems, recir­cu­la­tion is used (part of the air from the premis­es is mixed with out­door air and dis­trib­uted through the sup­ply air ducts). In the warm peri­od of the year, such a sys­tem can be used for air con­di­tion­ing trad­ing floors. To do this, ven­ti­la­tion units must be equipped with sec­tions for air cool­ing, and the vol­ume of incom­ing out­side air must be at least 20–30 m 3 /h Recir­cu­la­tion is not allowed to be used in the trad­ing floors of stores in which, for exam­ple, odor­ous sub­stances are present.

To pre­vent cold air enter­ing the store in win­ter, it is planned to install an air-ther­mal cur­tain at the entrance from the street or in the vestibule. The cur­tain cre­ates a flat pow­er­ful air­flow that sep­a­rates zones with dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­tures on both sides of open entrance doors. Air cur­tains can be water or elec­tric.

Elec­tric heat­ing

Elec­tric heat­ing finds its appli­ca­tion, as a rule, in small shops, when it is dif­fi­cult or impos­si­ble to orga­nize water heat­ing. When heat­ing with elec­tric­i­ty, elec­tric con­vec­tors can be used, which are eas­i­ly mount­ed on the wall and have a mod­ern appear­ance. Oil radi­a­tors and fan heaters are indis­pens­able for heat­ing small trade pavil­ions and tents, for which the pow­er grid is the only source of ener­gy. Infrared heaters, on the oth­er hand, can be used for heat­ing large vol­ume sales areas.

An elec­tric under­floor heat­ing sys­tem can also be used to heat the store. In this case, a spe­cial elec­tri­cal cable is laid in the floor, and not a coil of pipes. Elec­tric under­floor heat­ing is eas­i­er to install and main­tain than water, because. does not require a cir­cu­la­tion pump, mix­ing unit, bal­anc­ing fit­tings, etc. Its sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage is the rel­a­tive­ly high cost of elec­tric­i­ty.

To heat the store dur­ing the off-sea­son, you can use an air con­di­tion­er with a heat pump func­tion, i.e. able to work in the reverse cycle: trans­fer heat from the street to the room. Almost every man­u­fac­tur­er of air con­di­tion­ers has sim­i­lar mod­els. This method is most effec­tive at an out­door tem­per­a­ture of + 3–5 o C. Under such con­di­tions, the con­ver­sion rate of elec­tric­i­ty into heat is 2.2–2.6, i.e. at the cost of, for exam­ple, 100 watts of elec­tric­i­ty, 220–260 watts of the body is gen­er­at­ed. When the out­door tem­per­a­ture is below 0 o With the con­ver­sion index approach­es uni­ty, i.e. becomes close to the mode of direct use of elec­tric­i­ty for air heat­ing.

It must be said that the solu­tion to the issue of heat­ing a store is an indi­vid­ual and mul­ti­vari­ate mat­ter. There­fore, it is best to resolve this issue with the help of pro­fes­sion­als. You should not save on design and instal­la­tion work, as well as on the qual­i­ty of equip­ment and com­po­nents. Such a reduc­tion in cap­i­tal costs may sub­se­quent­ly result in unplanned expens­es or unsat­is­fac­to­ry per­for­mance of engi­neer­ing sys­tems.

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