Heating system of a two-story private house.

Heat­ing sys­tem of a two-sto­ry pri­vate house.

  • sin­gle-cir­cuit and dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­ers

  • types of fuel

    • gas boil­ers

    • elec­tri­cal

    • liq­uid fuel and sol­id fuel

    • com­bined

  • wall and hinged

  • steel and cast iron

  • cor­ro­sion

If your house is not con­nect­ed to exter­nal heat­ing net­works serv­ing a group of build­ings, you will most like­ly need to install a boil­er of the required capac­i­ty for heat­ing. The boil­er is the heart of the heat­ing sys­tem, its choice should be tak­en very seri­ous­ly.

The boil­er may be sin­gle-loop or dou­ble-cir­cuit . The sin­gle-cir­cuit boil­er works only for heat­ing. It can be retro­fit­ted with a hot water cir­cuit by con­nect­ing a water-to-water heat exchang­er (boil­er) of the required capac­i­ty to the heat­ing cir­cuit. The dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­er is already in the fac­to­ry equipped for both heat­ing and hot water prepa­ra­tion. When using a dou­ble-cir­cuit boil­er, you can save space in the boil­er room, reduce its total cost, get the boil­er equipped with every­thing nec­es­sary for quick instal­la­tion and start-up. But the final choice, of course, is best done with the help of spe­cial­ists.

Accord­ing to the type of fuel used, boil­ers are gas, elec­tric, diesel, sol­id fuel, com­bined.

In our coun­try, the cheap­est type of fuel is gas, there­fore, if it is pos­si­ble to con­nect to the main gas pipeline, then most often they are used gas boil­ers .

The gas boil­er can be atmos­pher­ic burn­er (with open com­bus­tion cham­ber) and with ven­ti­la­tion burn­er (with closed com­bus­tion cham­ber) . For boil­ers with a ven­ti­la­tion (blast) burn­er, it is nec­es­sary to pro­vide a boil­er room that is not adja­cent to a com­fort­able stay zone (rest room, liv­ing room, etc.), since the blow burn­er cre­ates notice­able noise dur­ing oper­a­tion. It is opti­mal to locate the boil­er room in a tech­ni­cal base­ment or in an exter­nal exten­sion. If the boil­er room is locat­ed near a res­i­den­tial area, then it is bet­ter to use a boil­er with an atmos­pher­ic burn­er, the noise lev­el of which is no more than that of a con­ven­tion­al gas stove. Why, then, are blast burn­ers need­ed, you ask. The fact is that boil­ers with atmos­pher­ic burn­ers are much more sen­si­tive to a decrease in gas pres­sure in gas net­works (which can be observed, for exam­ple, in win­ter). Such sen­si­tiv­i­ty can lead to a vio­la­tion of the unin­ter­rupt­ed oper­a­tion of the boil­er and a decrease in the life of the gas trunks. There­fore, with an unsta­ble gas sup­ply, pref­er­ence should be giv­en to a boil­er with a blast burn­er.

Popular Models


Daikin
Boil­er gas Beretta 28 CSI

Daikin
Gas boil­ers with steel heat exchang­er Conord 10S

Daikin
Gas boil­er Camus hydron­ics BFH 0480

Gas boil­ers: all mod­els

Elec­tric boil­ers spared from such short­com­ings, they do not have a com­bus­tion process and they do not depend on gas net­works. The small over­all dimen­sions of the steel case allow you to mount an elec­tric boil­er almost any­where. They are silent in oper­a­tion, when using them, there is no need for a chim­ney and addi­tion­al rooms for the boil­er room. The dis­ad­van­tage is the high cost of elec­tric­i­ty com­pared to oth­er types of fuel.

Popular Models


Daikin
Elec­tric boil­er Tenko 12

Daikin
Elec­tric boil­er Sev­eryanin 3 kW

Daikin
Elec­tric boil­er Kospel 36

Elec­tric boil­ers: all mod­els

Liq­uid fuel and sol­id fuel boil­ers — cheap­er to oper­ate than elec­tric ones, but they have their draw­backs, the main of which is the need for reg­u­lar fuel load­ing, as well as pos­si­ble dif­fi­cul­ties asso­ci­at­ed with its trans­porta­tion and stor­age.

Popular Models


Daikin
Sol­id fuel boil­er Beretta 17

Daikin
Wood burn­ing boil­er with top com­bus­tion Jaspi 40 YPV / 40 Stok­er

Daikin
Sol­id fuel boil­ers Evan TT-18K

Sol­id fuel boil­ers: all mod­els

If the new­ly built cot­tage has not yet been sup­plied with gas, but is planned in the future, and heat­ing is already nec­es­sary, then the way out is to install a boil­er that can run on diesel fuel or gas. To switch to anoth­er type of fuel, it is nec­es­sary to replace the burn­er. Such boil­ers are usu­al­ly sin­gle-cir­cuit; for the prepa­ra­tion of hot water, a water-to-water heat exchang­er (boil­er) can be addi­tion­al­ly con­nect­ed to the boil­er. Also avail­able com­bined boil­ers which can run on gas, liq­uid or sol­id fuel.

Popular Models


Daikin
Com­bined boil­er Jaspi 1

Daikin
Out­door unit of com­bined heat­ing sys­tem Robur

Daikin
Boil­ers for sol­id fuel, gas Conord 11

Com­bined boil­ers: all mod­els

Boil­ers are also divid­ed into wall-mount­ed (hinged) and floor (sta­tion­ary) . From the names it can be seen that some are placed on the wall of the room, while oth­ers require instal­la­tion on the floor. The main dif­fer­ence between them, in most cas­es, is the mate­r­i­al of the pri­ma­ry heat exchang­er. In wall-mount­ed boil­ers, the heat exchang­er is cop­per, and in floor boil­ers it is made of steel or cast iron. Advan­tages of wall-mount­ed boil­ers over floor-stand­ing ones:

  • com­pact dimen­sions;

  • small mass;

  • low cost.

The dis­ad­van­tages, com­pared with floor, include:

  • pow­er restric­tions (usu­al­ly not more than 35 kW);

  • lim­i­ta­tion when using antifreeze;

  • high sen­si­tiv­i­ty to the qual­i­ty of the coolant and tap water;

  • short­er ser­vice life.

Sol­id fuel and liq­uid fuel boil­ers can only be sta­tion­ary, gas and elec­tric — both sta­tion­ary and mount­ed.

The next dif­fer­ence is the mate­r­i­al from which the boil­er is made. All wall-mount­ed boil­ers have a steel body. Out­door ones can be both steel and cast iron . Well-known man­u­fac­tur­ing com­pa­nies pro­duce both steel and cast iron boil­ers. If we take for com­par­i­son the same type of boil­ers from one man­u­fac­tur­er, then a steel boil­er will be cheap­er than a cast iron one. Both are able to work reli­ably, each of the options has its advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages, and the choice between them large­ly depends on the con­sumer.

Steel is a more duc­tile mate­r­i­al, while cast iron is more brit­tle. Cast iron boil­ers tol­er­ate tem­per­a­ture changes dur­ing oper­a­tion worse, so their pip­ing, sub­ject to all safe­ty mea­sures, can turn out to be much more expen­sive than steel boil­ers. Steel boil­ers have a low­er mass and, as a rule, a high­er effi­cien­cy.

But cast iron has such a won­der­ful prop­er­ty as cor­ro­sion resis­tance . Cor­ro­sion of the boil­er walls is usu­al­ly caused by con­den­sate falling in the boil­er fur­nace. This is due to the fact that pos­si­ble con­den­sate is not just water or water vapor. Dur­ing the com­bus­tion of any organ­ic fuel, many impu­ri­ties enter the flue gas­es, such as sul­fur oxide (SO2) or car­bon oxide (CO2). When water vapor con­dens­es in the boil­er fur­nace, these impu­ri­ties mix with water, form­ing a rather aggres­sive acidic envi­ron­ment that can adverse­ly affect both steel and cast iron. The walls of the cast-iron boil­er are thick­er, so the cast-iron boil­er can work longer under such unfa­vor­able influ­ences. But it is most cor­rect not to rely on the thick­ness of the boil­er wall, and not to allow the con­di­tions under which the con­den­sa­tion process occurs. This is already a mat­ter of prop­er design, instal­la­tion, pip­ing of the boil­er and the heat­ing sys­tem that the boil­er serves.

The advan­tages of cast iron boil­ers include their sec­tion­al design, which makes it pos­si­ble to assem­ble such boil­ers on site. Steel boil­ers are always mono­lith­ic and are sol­id blocks made in the fac­to­ry.

As you can see, choos­ing a boil­er is not an easy task, but it is quite fea­si­ble for pro­fes­sion­als. Tak­ing into account the indi­vid­ual char­ac­ter­is­tics of each con­struc­tion site and the ver­sa­til­i­ty of tech­ni­cal solu­tions, con­tact­ing spe­cial­ists looks not only desir­able, but prac­ti­cal­ly nec­es­sary. Such an approach is oblig­a­tory in the civ­i­lized coun­tries of the world, there is every rea­son to believe that for Rus­sia, too, the “ama­teur” approach to impor­tant tech­ni­cal solu­tions will soon become irrel­e­vant.

Com­pa­nies pre­sent­ing boil­ers and boil­er equip­ment on TopClimat.ru

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