Interior designer L. Sizova
Stylist O. Voronina
A photo K. Manko
In country houses, rectangular ventilation ducts are placed under the ceiling in false beams.
Designers J. Kirichek, V. Yezhov (studio «Interior-Caprice»), Photo V. Nefedova
Architects S. Chertkov,
A photo V. Nefedova
Decorative lowering of the ceiling along the perimeter of the bathroom hides from prying eyes the air duct connected to the prefabricated exhaust duct
To connect the supply and exhaust ventilation unit, round spiral-lock air ducts with a diameter of about 300mm made of galvanized sheet steel, thickness 0.75mm, heat-insulated on the outside with a layer of foil «Penofol». Thermal insulation joints are glued with «aluminum tape»
Ventilation systems designed to supply air to a small apartment or house are often made from round tin air ducts with a nipple connection. They are easily joined with duct fans (a), silencers (b), filter boxes (c) and other network equipment.
Rigid round air ducts protected from corrosion by a thin layer of zinc— by 1m2 The surface of the steel sheet from which they are made is coated with approximately 400 g of this metal. Such channels can operate outdoors for decades without losing their operational characteristics.
In the places of turns of round ventilation ducts, adjustable corner joints are used
Air ducts in the apartment are laid in the space behind the false ceiling: in the corridor— main channels, in rooms— supply and return taps
Helios Ventilation Systems
Round spiral-lock air duct (a) can be infinitely long, rectangular (b)— up to 2.5m
The composition of the ventilation network of a large country house usually includes air ducts of various types. Main sections of the system— from rigid rectangular and round air ducts (a, b). Peripheral— from flexible ventilation ducts with heat and noise insulation (c) or without it (d)
A modern country house, equipped with an air heating system, is pierced by a network of tin ventilation ducts. Through their dark labyrinths, cool air from flights of stairs is delivered to the air heater, and heated— transported to heated rooms
The durability of the ventilation system depends on the method of fixing rigid air ducts to the ceiling. Rectangular channels are fixed with driven anchors, studs, Z- or L-shaped profiles (a, c), traverses (b), round air ducts— on clamps and perforated tape (g)
Air intake devices are usually installed on the outer wall of the house at the exit points of the air ducts from the wall. ATin this case, galvanized steel air intakes with visors were used to protect the ventilation ducts from rain and snow
Rigid rectangular ducts and fittings are often joined to each other using flanges fastened with bolts and brackets. A rubber seal is placed between the flanges.
Flexible duct connected to the ventilation grille
Ventilation network of flexible heat-insulated air ducts
Flexible corrugated heat-insulated (a) and sound-insulated (b) air ducts
A «ready-made solution» for a bathroom in a country house based on a flexible duct, fan and ventilation grilles
The connection of the channel indoor unit of the split system is carried out using flexible ducts
Architect A. Belyavskaya
A photo V. Vasilyeva
Flexible plastic air duct is not subject to corrosion, it does not care about long-term contact with air saturated with water vapor
It is easy to create a ventilation network from plastic channels and shaped elements to remove hot air from the stove outside the room
The editors would like to thank the companies Vertex, DT Thermo, STTS Service, PM Vent for their help in filming.
Air ducts are installed during the repair of an apartment or the construction of a country house. Of course, they cannot be called scarce goods.— devices of all conceivable types and sizes are on the market. But which ones do you prefer?
air ducts— these are tubular ventilation ducts of round, rectangular or elliptical section, designed to transport air or other mixture of gases. ATCurrently, galvanized steel air ducts (rectangular and round), as well as flexible air ducts of various designs, are the most widely used. Each of these devices has its own characteristics.
Where are ducts used?
In apartments, air ducts are used to create mechanical ventilation systems. Thanks to them, fresh air from the street enters different parts of the home, and exhaust air saturated with carbon dioxide and fumes— leaves the house. You can not do without air duct networks when installing a ducted air conditioning system, in which one air-preparing unit supplies several rooms with cooled or heated air at once. Air ducts are often used to connect a kitchen hood hood to an exhaust outlet remote from it.
Ellipse and its advantages
The production of high-quality elbows, bends and other complex fittings requires filigree precision in cutting the steel sheet. If the distance between the false ceiling and the ceiling is small, then a flat oval duct system may be preferable. Such ducts are often made from round cross-section helical-lock air ducts, giving them an elliptical shape on specially designed machines. Flat-oval air ducts are easy to place behind a false ceiling, they create less resistance to air flow than rectangular ducts (with the same cross-sectional area of both), they look attractive from the outside, which is important when installing the ventilation network in a room. The cost of flat-oval air ducts, however, is higher than rectangular ducts, and you can’t buy them everywhere.
ATcottages, air ducts are used not only in mechanical, but also in gravitational ventilation systems. They are also necessary in the construction of air heating systems.
Air duct selection— is not an easy task. If you plan to install an extensive duct system (for example, for ventilation or air heating), a project is required. It should be created by an experienced designer who will calculate the required performance of the system, develop a scheme for laying air ducts andt.e. Bdesign task, it should be noted that the speed of air movement in the air ducts passing through the living quarters should not exceed 3-4m / s, otherwise the noise from the network will annoy you. Alas, this happens often.— after all, at the whim of architects in many modern houses there is often no place for ventilation ducts at all. Because of this, ventilation specialists have to make the ducts narrow, and the air velocity in them is too high …
Cross-sectional area of a rectangular or circular duct diameter for transporting air at speeds up to 4m / s can be determined independently. For this, it is convenient to use the approximate relation: S= 0.9 L, where S— the minimum required cross-sectional area (cm2), and L— air consumption (m3/h) through the duct.
When ordering the installation of air ducts, do not be stingy with paying for the work of good specialists. ToUnfortunately, ventilation impostors in Russia often do not follow the elementary rules for connecting air ducts to each other and hanging them from ceilings. Therefore, in an already finished system, there is often a lack of air supply or exhaust, vibration andt.n. Other typical effects— ingress of foreign objects into the ventilation system, air leakage from the air duct route, lack or excess of pumped air, the spread of unpleasant odors in the room and even premature malfunctions of ventilation units. At the stage of installation work, you can easily check the correct installation and installation of the system.
Loyalty to tradition
Rigid metal air ducts of round and rectangular cross section and corresponding fittings have been used for many years in ventilation and air conditioning systems of various pressures and capacities. ATin particular, they are advised to be used by ABOK specialists (non-profit partnership «Engineers for heating, ventilation, air conditioning, heat supply and building thermal physics») in the «Technical recommendations for the organization of air exchange in apartments of a multi-storey residential building» as channels for mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation systems. ATIn Russia, rigid metal air ducts are manufactured in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents, among which VSN 353 can be noted— 86 «Design and application of air ducts from standardized parts», SNiP 41-01— 2003 «Heating, ventilation and air conditioning» andothers inAir ducts made of various metals are available for sale, however, products made of galvanized steel sheet dominate among them.
Classification. According to the design and technological features, all round metal air ducts on the Russian market are divided into straight-seam and spiral. The latter, in turn, are divided into spiral-lock and spiral-welded. Rectangular air ducts according to the method of connecting blanks can be divided into folded and welded.
For round metal air ducts, internal diameters are 100-2000mm. ATeveryday use models with a diameter of 100, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 225, 250mm. Round air ducts are most often made straight-seam: in them, a folded or welded seam connecting the two sides of the metal sheet to each other runs parallel to the longitudinal axis. Their length is usually 1; 1.25; 2; 2.5m. However, recently, the volume of production of round air ducts with spiral-lock and spiral-welded seams, manufactured on special machines, has noticeably increased. These air ducts are characterized by increased rigidity compared to straight-lined ones. Their length can be unlimited (most often they sell segments of 3 or 6m), the seam has a good density, the appearance is always neat. However, metal consumption is slightly increased, which affects the price (spiral by 10-20% expensive).
Atrectangular metal air ducts, a number of typical cross-sectional dimensions are also installed: from 100100 to 40003200mm. Length of straight sections— one; 1.25; 2; 2.5m. Rectangular ducts, as a rule, are made straight-line, but with an increase in cross-section, they become bulky, inconvenient for transportation and storage. These shortcomings are overcome in a relatively new design of ducts with an angled snap-seam.— they are collected at the place of installation.
Compared to round rectangular ducts, they create greater resistance to air flow (that is, when using them, you will have to buy a more powerful and more expensive fan), and they also transmit and generate noise. But it is rectangular channels, in our opinion, that are better suited for an apartment or a country house, since it is easier to hide them behind a false ceiling. With the same height of round and rectangular ducts, the cross section of the latter can be 5 times larger (usually it is allowed to produce flat rectangular ducts with an aspect ratio of 1:four). BUTwith the same cross section, the height of the circular duct is always greater. In this case, manufacturers of round ducts give the following argument: it is cheaper to run two round ducts in parallel than to make one rectangular one. This is only true if the ventilation network consists mainly of straight sections. However, in more or less branched networks, about 30-40% of the total air duct area are shaped products, the number of which also doubles with two parallel routes. ATAs a result, circular ducts are still much more expensive than rectangular ones. As for noise, it can be combated by covering the inner surfaces of rectangular ducts with sound-absorbing material.
Docking without problems. Separate straight sections of round or rectangular ducts, as well as shaped parts of ventilation systems, are connected in two main ways— flanged flangeless. The fewer joints in the system, the better, but you can’t do without them at all.
Flange connection is carried out using flanges fixed at the ends of straight sections, and fittings of air ducts. They are made of angle steel or mounting rails and corners (connection «shinoreyka»). Flanges are often fastened to air ducts with self-tapping screws or with rivets with a diameter of 4-5mm, placed through 200-250mm, sometimes with the use of welding. When installing the network between the flanges to seal the connections, tape rubber or other sealant is laid.
Flanged connections compared to flanged ones are considered the most promising today due to significant metal savings and reduced labor intensity, and hence the cost of installation. For rectangular ducts, a flangeless connection using metal rails is widely used. It is it that is used in the installation of air heating ducts— the practice of building such systems in the USA and Canada has shown that the low tightness of such a connection is not a problem. Flangeless connection of round ducts with a diameter of 100-900mm is carried out by means of a bandage made of thin sheet steel. ATRecently, high-tech nipple connection of round air ducts has been very common.
Omarket. Among the largest manufacturers of rigid air ducts made of galvanized steel sheets are Viptek, GalVent, Gefest-Profile, Jet Cool, Lissant, LotVentService, Provento, Spetsstroy, STTS Service «, «Taira», «Firm «Eurosphere», «Everest Stroy», «EcoVenTechnology», AirVent, Ani Group (all— Russia). Straight sections of round and rectangular cross-section, made of galvanized steel, from different companies cost an average of 270-450rub. for 1m2 used steel surfaces; shaped parts— approximately 400-1100rub. for 1m2.
Rigid galvanized ventilation ducts transporting cooled air are usually covered on the outside with a layer of laminated thermal insulation (basalt wool, Penofol)
Semi-rigid and flexible air ducts of circular cross-section with a diameter of 100-356mm appeared on the Russian market about 10-15 years ago. They should only be used if it is not possible to supply rigid metal ducts,— as fittings of a complex geometric shape, for connecting ventilation equipment, air diffusers, silencers and other devices located in false ceilings. ATIn Europe, due to the high cost of rental and the high cost of installing air ducts made of galvanized steel sheet, semi-rigid and flexible air ducts are more widespread and recommended for use in residential premises.
Semi-rigid ducts. They are a pipe twisted from an aluminum tape connected at the junction with a tight seam lock. This design allows their use in installations operating at temperatures of -30…+300C. As for semi-rigid air ducts made of stainless steel or galvanized steel, they are able to function in more difficult conditions— even at temperatures up to 700C. Resistance to high temperatures allows the use of semi-rigid ducts not only in ventilation and air conditioning networks, but also in hot air and smoke exhaust systems.
For ease of transportation, semi-rigid air ducts are compressed, becoming 5-6 times shorter than their original length. However, once stretched, they cannot be re-compressed.
Flexible air ducts. ATunlike semi-rigid flexible corrugated channels can be repeatedly bent, compressed and stretched. They are shaped by a spiral frame made of steel wire. A flexible shell of several layers of laminated foil is «stretched» over it (such air ducts can transport air at a temperature -30…+140C) or durable PVC covered with polyamide fabric (up to 90FROM).
Along with flexible corrugated ducts, flexible insulated ducts are on the market, designed only for ventilation and air conditioning systems. Thermally insulated air ducts are created on the basis of flexible corrugated air ducts made of laminated foil, on the outer surface of which a layer of thermal insulation with a thickness of 25mm and a density of about 16kg/m3and for thermal insulation— an external covering from multilayered aluminum foil. Flexible heat-insulated sound-absorbing air ducts for ventilation and air conditioning systems with low and medium pressure consist of a micro-perforated flexible corrugated air duct wrapped with polyester film (this prevents diffusion of heat-insulating material), a layer of thermal insulation with a thickness of approximately 25mm and a density of about 16kg/m3 and an outer coating of multilayer aluminum foil.
Advantages and disadvantages. All modifications of flexible and semi-rigid channels are lightweight. They do not need special turns, so the ventilation network has fewer connections, which greatly simplifies installation. To fasten the air ducts together, as well as to connect them to diffusers, a special «aluminum tape» and plastic clamps are used. Seams and joints of foil thermal insulation of insulated flexible air ducts are also glued with this tape. Finally, for mounting, suppliers offer a large selection of clips, hangers, mastics andt.d.
The disadvantage of all flexible and semi-rigid air ducts is a significant aerodynamic resistance, which does not allow the effective use of these channels in more or less branched ventilation systems.
Mounting. Alas, many Russian installers are unfamiliar with the technology of installing flexible air ducts. For example, they forget that a flexible duct without thermal insulation must be fully stretched before installation, otherwise the air will move through it with great difficulty. When passing through wall structures, special metal sleeves or adapters are very rarely used. Some people don’t even realize that a polyester duct will sag if it comes into contact with a hot central heating pipe for some time. In addition, such a neighborhood will accelerate the aging process of such a channel. Often make the biggest mistake— they confuse the direction of air movement in the duct (it is indicated by an arrow on the box, and on the channel— colored labels). Air ducts are laid at random, not taking into account that their bending radius should be as large as possible (at least two diameters), clamps of too small diameter are used for fastening, pinching the flow area. Often there is such a miscalculation as fixing the insulating coating of a heat-insulated air duct with a clamp without sealing the joint with tape. There is no guarantee of the effectiveness of this method, since such a seal will not be airtight; in addition, moisture may condense in these areas (when used in air conditioning systems).
When fastening a flexible duct (with or without insulation), it must be remembered that its maximum sag between two fastening points should not exceed 50mm by 1m. The permissible distance between two suspension points ranges from 1.5-3m depending on the type of duct. For a flexible channel above ceiling structures, the distance between the centers of the supports should be 1m. If the air duct is suspended vertically, then the optimal distance between the stabilizing mounting clamps— 1-1.8m. Flexible ducts cannot be used in vertical columns of air distribution systems with a height of more than two floors.
A photo D.Minkin
A photo D. Minkina
A photo D. Minkina
The fastening of the air distributor to the flexible duct in the bathroom begins with the fact that the channel is shortened to 5-10see (a). Next, a mounting sleeve is inserted into the duct and fixed (b). Then an anemostat is installed on the sleeve (c)
The plastic air duct can be quickly and easily shortened to the desired length with a hacksaw
For joining straight sections of plastic channels, shaped parts are produced
Plastic channels are easy to hide behind a false plasterboard ceiling
Offer and prices. Imported semi-rigid and flexible air ducts DEC International (Netherlands), Acomat, Sodiamex (both— France), Polar Bear (Finland), CCL (UK) andetc. Among domestic manufacturers, the positions of Diaflex (Russia) are especially strong. We offer semi-rigid air ducts of the company «Arktos«, flexible— «VentProfile», «Flexible air ducts» (all— Russia) andetc. The cost of Russian channels is at least 20% lower than imported. For example, 1 running. m of a flexible air duct made of laminated foil, produced in Russia, will cost you about 280rub. with a diameter of 102mm, with a diameter of 406mm— already at 2thousandrub. For the «cut» of a heat-insulated sound-absorbing duct of the same length with a diameter of 356mm have to pay 5.4thousandrub. As for semi-rigid air ducts, they are cheaper: 5m of Russian-made aluminum sleeve (365mm in diameter) can be purchased for approximately 2.2thousandrub.
The era of plastic
Not so long ago, round and rectangular plastic air ducts (ABS, PVC andetc.) and their corresponding shaped elements. This type of air ducts is now quite actively conquering the European and Russian markets.
Advantages of plastic ventilation ducts— light weight, fairly high strength and 100% corrosion protection. The manufacturing technology of these air ducts makes it possible to obtain an absolutely smooth inner surface, so friction losses in such ducts are minimal. In addition, a plastic air duct, properly treated with an antistatic compound, practically does not attract dust particles, which makes it possible to clean the ventilation much less frequently and thereby save on maintenance of ventilation equipment. Installation of air ducts is easy— they can be cut and adjusted directly to the place where the ventilation system is installed. Operating temperature of such channels (-40…+95C, so they can be used in the distribution of hot and cold air. It should be noted that when using plastic air ducts, the noise of a fan or a supply unit practically does not penetrate into the room through their surface and they do not need additional sound insulation.
Among the shortcomings, we note the very low fire resistance of plastic air ducts. The problem of such systems, according to some experts, is the difficulty of laying ventilation ducts through the vapor barrier of walls in cottages.
Plastic air ducts are produced, in particular, by the Ecovent company (Russia). The most famous of foreign suppliers— Vents (Ukraine), uponor (Finland) andother Cost of straight plastic channels— approximately 120-500rub. for 1linearm.