The arrangement of ventilation allows the movement of air both indoors and with the environment, ensuring the elimination of fumes, odors, various contaminants, carbon dioxide and other substances. At the same time, in small rooms it is enough to organize natural ventilation, and for buildings with a large number of separate rooms, ventilation system equipment is required, including devices for forced air supply, cleaning and heating.
Project development: guarantee of the functioning of the ventilation system
The organization of ventilation systems requires the involvement of qualified specialists for the development of the project, which guarantees the efficiency of the system. It is also possible to independently carry out calculations of the ventilation system, taking into account the air circulation in the room, and then select the necessary equipment. But depending on the complexity of the building design, the ventilation design becomes more complicated, increasing the risk of errors that reduce the performance of the system during operation.
When developing a ventilation system project, a number of standards must be observed:
- sanitary and hygienic;
- fire fighting;
- building and architectural.
The initial indicator in the design of ventilation is the amount of air exchange calculated for each of the rooms in the building. The calculations take into account the ventilation design standards established by regulatory documents. For example, SNiP provides for an average air consumption rate per person of 60 m3/hour. The calculation is based on the number of people in the room.
An important feature is the correspondence between the volumes of inflow and exhaust, if this equality is not observed, air is rarefied and drafts are formed.
Taking into account practical experience, it is recommended for premises with an area of more than 1000 sq.m., when natural ventilation becomes ineffective, to develop a ventilation system design and install forced ventilation.
What are the features of drafting a project for a ventilation system?
When developing a ventilation project before the construction work, it is possible to take into account the features of the ventilation system in the design documentation of the entire facility as a whole:
- provide a separate room for the ventilation chamber:
- calculate the routes for laying air ducts;
- adjust the interior by creating special niches.
The process of designing a ventilation system involves a certain algorithm of actions:
- a preliminary inspection is carried out and options for the system design are analyzed;
- the calculation of the main parameters of the system is carried out — the magnitude and frequency of air exchange, the size of the ventilation ducts, the required performance of the equipment, etc.;
- the selection of the optimal design of air ducts is carried out, taking into account the possibility of maintenance and accessibility to the system nodes;
- selection of ventilation equipment is carried out, taking into account the estimated dimensions of the room;
- equipping the ventilation system with noise protection means;
- thermal insulation of the ventilation system.
When performing design measures, other additional issues can be taken into account: the selection of materials for the installation of air ducts, reorganization measures in case of malfunctions in the system, etc.
What are the features when designing an industrial ventilation system?
The industrial ventilation device is designed to ensure the safety and performance of various types of equipment, the health and life of personnel involved in production. Therefore, the design and installation of industrial ventilation should only be carried out by specialists with knowledge and experience.
Industrial ventilation is difficult to design and install, taking into account the requirements for sanitary and hygienic standards, acoustics, energy saving, ecology, and fire safety. In addition, economic feasibility is also important, given that the installation of a ventilation system in industrial production is a costly financial undertaking.
Modern production is characterized by the use of several types of ventilation systems: general exchange, local, local.
When designing, they take into account the functional purpose of systems that can be emergency, smoke control, technological.
Industrial ventilation is divided into natural and mechanical. The system that combines these two groups has the greatest effectiveness.
The main stages in the design of industrial ventilation are:
- implementation of the development of technical specifications, taking into account the layout of the premises, equipment material, the number of employees, the specifics of the production process, etc.;
- carrying out calculations on the operation of the ventilation system;
- selection of equipment for the operation of the ventilation system;
- drawing up a package of technical documentation — graphics, drawings, explanatory note, etc.
What are the mistakes in ventilation design?
In some cases, during the independent design and installation of the ventilation system, various kinds of errors can be made. Therefore, before starting to develop a hood project, you should carefully read the main mistakes made by both amateurs and specialists who neglect the requirements of SNiP.
Among the typical mistakes made in the design and installation of ventilation systems, the following can be noted:
- asymmetrical installation of ventilation ducts;
- selection of fans and gratings that do not correspond to the calculations;
- errors were made in performance calculations;
- the heat balance is not taken into account in the calculations;
- system setup is incorrect.
As experts advise, when designing the hood, the basic rule should be observed: the noise from the operating ventilation depends on the length and proportionality of the elements of the ventilation system.
Designing a ventilation system is a mandatory involvement of specialists
The process of designing any system is not an easy job. For large housing construction, public and industrial buildings, such work should be entrusted to a specialist. A professional approach to ventilation design will eliminate major errors and ensure efficient and high-quality operation of the ventilation system during further operation.