For air conditioning in apartments today, compact, low-noise and inexpensive split systems are used. The popularity of these devices is very high. ToUnfortunately, their unsystematic and uncontrolled installation for decades has led to a significant deterioration in the architectural appearance of many buildings in the cities of our country.
External blocks of split systems dot, like warts, the facades of many buildings, and even architectural monuments are not immune from this. It is often not entirely safe for a person to stand nearby due to the threat of falling loose equipment. Obviously, things will change soon. Starting from 1Martha2005when the new housing code was adoptedRF (further— LCDRF), for the installation of split systems and other stationary air conditioners in apartments, it is necessary to obtain a permit for reconstruction. OHow severe this law is, so far, far from all citizens have guessed. Many even dare to mount the equipment arbitrarily, counting on the indulgence of the authorities and the opportunity to coordinate the existing split system later. However, this path is fraught with significant financial losses and serious (up to criminal) liability, especially if the equipment installation technology is grossly violated.
Poor air conditioners: in such cramped conditions, they obviously will not last long … We recommend that you strictly follow the requirements of the Housing Code of the Russian Federation. Before buying an air conditioner, it is necessary to obtain permission from the state authorities for its installation. Indeed, according to Art.25LCDRF, installation of electrical equipment, including air conditioning (washing machine, boiler andt.n.), refers to the refurbishment of the apartment. Andin accordance with Art.26LCDThe RF should be carried out exclusively in agreement with the local self-government body (prefecture, district or city administration, but not with the ZhEK or DEZ). Only a licensed company has the right to install an air conditioner. But that’s not all. According to the new rules, after installing the equipment, an acceptance committee consisting of representatives of the housing inspectorate and the local authority, as well as the manager of the house and a representative of the installer, should visit your apartment. The commission first evaluates how the work was done, and then draws up an act confirming the correctness of the installation or fixing the shortcomings. ATIn the latter case, you will have to redo everything, and then re-call the commission. The act on the correctly completed installation of the air conditioner (reconstruction) is sent to the organization that records real estate objects in your city (that is, to the BTI).
For example, in the capital, the installation of an air conditioner must be coordinated with the State Housing Inspectorate of Moscow.Moscow (Moszhilinspektsiya). It was on her by Decree of the Government of Moscow No.73-PP dated 02/08/2005The functions of the authorized body for the coordination of reorganizations and redevelopments were assigned.
According to par.3 Applications1 of this resolution, today such a multi-stage procedure for obtaining permits for the installation of air conditioners in residential buildings has been adopted.
At the first stage, you need to order the development of an air conditioner installation project in a specialized organization licensed for this kind of activity. The finished project is subject to approval at the district level, as a rule, in the following instances:
architectural and planning management;
sanitary and epidemiological service;
building balance sheet.
The architect of this building would certainly not be happy with such a «refinement» of the facade. Having prepared all the necessary application documents and a project, you submit them to the «one-stop shop», which is really one in each district, and after a maximum of 45working days from the same «window» should receive either a positive decision of the Moscow Housing Inspectorate on the possibility of installing an air conditioner, or a reasoned refusal. ATin the first case, you can proceed to mutual settlements with the installer, in the second— or refuse to purchase, or make it at your own peril and risk.
Tounfortunately, for those who have already installed air conditioning before the entry into force of the LCDRF (up to 1March 2005d.), amnesty «behind the prescription of years» is not expected— the decision of this problem is left to the discretion of local authorities. For example, in the capital, in accordance with Decree of the Government of Moscow No.883-PP from 15.11.2005G.Moszhilin-spektsiya has been given the right to approve the reconstructions carried out without authorization in residential buildings, if they do not violate the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and do not pose a threat to their life and health. If the installation once completed cannot be agreed upon, the air conditioner will have to be dismantled. However, there is no need to despair even in this case. If you don’t want to stay without a climate system, there is an option to purchase air conditioners of a different design, which may be easier to obtain permission to install. You can also use equipment that does not require permission at all (for example, mobile air conditioners).
Unauthorized rearrangement of a dwelling (installation of a split system) can lead to a violation of the legal rights of your neighbors or outsiders or a threat to their life and health. Then you will be liable under the law.
Risk and its consequences
Installation of air conditioners in the spirit of «wild» installation teams: tasteless, vandal and extremely unsafe
Ignorance of the law is not an excuse. If you arbitrarily reorganize a dwelling, as a result of which the rights and interests of your neighbors or outsiders will be violated or, even worse, there will be a threat to their life and health,— then be prepared to be punished to the fullest extent of the law. ATin the worst case, you will face criminal liability (for example, if the external unit falls on the heads of passers-by, which will lead to serious consequences). Or financial losses, which, however, may turn out to be less significant than the costs of coordinating the reorganization, which any private law firm will help you do (in Moscow, such services cost from 18thousandrub.). Meanwhile, in other places, for the entire period of technical operation of the air conditioner, even if it is extremely ugly and illiterately installed, no one can turn to you with claims. Alas, these are the realities of Russian reality …
According to Art.25LCDRF, air conditioner installationThis is an apartment renovation. ATin accordance with Art.26LCDRF, it should be carried out in agreement with the local self-government body (with the prefecture or the administration of the district or city, but not with the ZhEK or DEZ).
Technological educational program
This house was built quite recently, but its “face” is already ulcerated with outdoor units of air conditioners. If, contrary to our warnings, you nevertheless decided to install the air conditioner without permission, postponing the redevelopment approval until better times, then at least treat the issue of choosing an installer as carefully as possible . After all, now there are a lot of charlatans on the market who do not even know the basics of proper installation of climate control equipment. It is especially necessary to act carefully in the “high season”, namely in the heat, when dozens of advertisements appear in the newspapers from “wild” (that is, not belonging to any company, working illegally) crews ready to install air conditioning for you at half price. Many of those who dared to contact this kind of workers bitterly regretted it. If possible, give preference to companies that are licensed to install air conditioners.
It would be useful to get acquainted with the installation technology of modern split systems. Keep in mind that even competent specialists, saving time, effort or materials, sometimes violate the correctness of the technological process, which may well affect the quality of your air conditioner installation.
Recall (and for those who did not know, we will inform you) that the split system consists of two blocks. One of them is mounted in the apartment openly or discreetly, behind a false ceiling. Second— it contains the noisiest equipment (it looks like a suitcase)— located outside the apartment. The blocks are connected to each other by tubes through which freon circulates, as well as by electrical communications. To control the air conditioner, as a rule, use the remote control.DU— almost the same as the TV. A qualified specialist (as a rule, this is the design manager of the company where you made the purchase) should determine the place of installation of the indoor and outdoor units of the split system.
If there is no other place to install a split system, except on the facade of your house, try to get out of the situation with maximum correctness. For example, paint the outdoor unit the same color as the wall of the building. Properly selected weatherproof paint will make the device almost invisible.
Anti-vandal «cells» for air conditioners
Space for indoor unit are chosen taking into account the functional requirements and features of the geometry of the room. At the same time, it is necessary to make sure that the unit is not directly exposed to moisture, sunlight and other heat sources, so that the air filling the room can freely pass through the evaporator, and it is convenient for service engineers to adjust and maintain the air conditioner. It is equally important that condensate can be drained from the indoor unit— best of all in the house sewer network.
outdoor unit they are arranged in such a way that during operation it does not disturb the neighbors, and the heat removed from the room is freely “discharged” into the environment. The main thing is that the technique is in harmony with the architectural appearance of the building and such indicators as the maximum allowable length of refrigerant piping are not exceeded, andalso the height difference between the outdoor and indoor units.
In order not to hang the equipment on the facade of an apartment building, in some cases it is logical to install an outdoor unit on the floor of the loggia. Here he will not attract prying eyes to himself, and will find the most advantageous conditions of existence. BUTon a closed loggia, the air conditioner will be in an extremely unfavorable situation: as a result of slow heat exchange with the environment, the temperature there will be very high, which can lead to disruption of the refrigeration cycle, equipment malfunctions and discomfort. ATSome recently built houses have special technological niches and technical balconies for air conditioners. It is here that the building operating organization allows the outdoor units of split systems to be located.
Today, before installing a split system, a satellite dish or just glazing a balcony, you need to obtain permission from the state authorities. Let’s say, take yes and paint the outdoor unit in the color of the wall of the building. Properly selected weatherproof paint allows you to make the device on the facade almost indistinguishable. Coloring of external blocks in the required color is carried out by a number of climatic companies operating in the Moscow market. However, there is nothing difficult in this procedure.— people who do not have such experience will quite cope with it. Estimated cost of painting the air conditioner body in the color of the facade— $100.
FROMFrom the point of view of equipment performance, it is better not to mount the outdoor unit where the prevailing wind is directed to the air conditioner (the normal operation of the fan will be disturbed), as well as on the sunny side (direct sunlight can provoke a protective shutdown of the device due to overheating) and near trees (leaves clog the heat exchanger ). It is forbidden to install outdoor units directly on the ground and in those places where they can be covered with snow, soiled, flooded with rain or sewage, where there is a possibility of leakage of explosive gases (in particular, near gas pipes laid at the second floor level along the walls of gasified buildings ).
Never mount the outdoor unit on a weak base such as hollow brick or thin metal wall. The fragility of the supporting structure almost always causes excessive noise, the elimination of which takes a lot of effort and money. There are cases when severe (up to 80kg) the outdoor unit has been dropped onto the roadway or sidewalk. To avoid such troubles, it is recommended to refuse to use fragile mounting surfaces, as well as self-made brackets that do not correspond to the actual load of the anchors.
There is an alternative!
Suppose it is impossible to install a split system in an apartment, since there is no space for an outdoor unit on the facade. However, you feel the lack of coolness in summer to the fullest. ATIn this case, you can advise other equipment that will absolutely not affect the appearance of the house. Among the most affordable solutions (which, however, do not differ in too high comfort), we will name mobile air conditioners— monoblocks.
The mobile air conditioner hose is released into the ajar window(a). This is uneconomical in terms of the efficiency of cooling or heating the air in the room. It is better to cut a neat hole in the glazing and install an air valve(b) In terms of design, they are very similar to window air conditioners, with the only difference that they do not «stick out in the window», but have an air duct up to 5m, which can be attached to a hole in a wall, a window, or, in the end, put in an open window (this is exactly what most of our fellow citizens do). This duct does not take in outside air, but to recover the generated heat. Mobile air conditioners themselves are based on complete recirculation. They are very handy for frequent travel.— «microclimate» travels with you (for example, to the country).
Since in any mobile air conditioner the compressor is located in the room, and its noise characteristics are close to those of the external unit of a conventional split system, manufacturers are very reluctant to give their exact value. For this reason, when buying, be sure to test the device at the maximum fan speed. Find out in advance the volume of the condensate collector (for mobile monoblocks). If it is too small, you will have to drain the water every two to three hours. It is also worth paying attention to the dimensions and weight of the device, as they affect its main advantage.— mobility.
Another air-conditioned façade
Indoor and outdoor units connected through a hole in the wall through refrigerant piping and electrical wiring. The hole is drilled with a perforator with a drill with a diameter of 45-70mm. At the same time, installation specialists must be especially careful, since beams, electrical wiring, gas and gas lines can be located in the wall.etc. The hole is usually made with a slight external slope, so that when it rains, moisture does not get into the room. Work should be carried out with the help of a professional tool from two sides, towards each other. BUT«Craftsmen» from various one-day companies (who, unfortunately, disappear without a trace at the end of the season, along with the customer’s hope for free warranty service) do not comply with this condition. Therefore, a huge chip often forms at the exit point of the drill from the wall.
The service life of the air conditioner largely depends on how well the copper piping is installed. ToUnfortunately, it is difficult for a non-professional to control the progress of these actions, moreover, marriage appears only after some time. In houses with a central air conditioning system, the facade is clean: air conditioners (fan coils) are installed only in apartments. However, according to some signs, one can judge the low quality of installation. For example, when installing an air conditioner, only seamless copper pipes of the thickness specified in the manufacturer’s instructions should be used. A pipe cutter is used to cut them. Do not cut pipes with a hacksaw— metal shavings that have fallen on the internal surfaces of freon communications will lead to a compressor breakdown the first time the air conditioner is turned on. In addition, the hacksaw does not give a perfectly even cut, which means that it does not allow you to clean the edges with high quality and flare the tubes at the ends using scrapers and rolling. Poor edging and flaring lead to gas leakage and malfunction of the air conditioner. To avoid creases, a pipe bender must be used to bend the pipe. Regardless of the model of the air conditioner, the pipelines must be thermally insulated separately. The lack of insulation is fraught with the appearance of condensate on the surface of the pipes and unjustified energy losses.
When installing the electrical cable and drainage pipeline there are usually no major problems. Nevertheless, it is worth making sure that the cable section and the parameters of the circuit breaker located on the electrical panel of the apartment correspond to the power of the air conditioner, and that all electrical equipment is grounded. In addition, the drain hose must be installed without kinks or breaks. Piping, electrical wires and a drain hose on both sides of the air-conditioned room are connected and then wrapped with reinforcing tape from the bottom up. ATindoors and on the facade, this «bundle» is placed in a box, after which the hole in the wall is filled with a heat insulator (mounting foam). FROMthe box should be handled very carefully, as with rough cutting and careless installation, it can worsen the interior or appearance of the outer walls.
Installers test the equipment before delivery. They determine the voltage in the network, the power consumption of the air conditioner, the refrigerant pressure, measure the temperature at the inlet and outlet of the indoor unit, refuel or bleed the refrigerant.
Testing equipment in all modes installers carry out immediately after its start-up. At the same time, the voltage in the network, the energy consumption of the air conditioner, the pressure of the refrigerant, the temperature at the inlet and outlet of the indoor unit are measured. If necessary, top up or bleed the refrigerant. Only after all these procedures have been completed, the air conditioner is commissioned to the customer.