Sometimes there are interruptions in the supply of hot water. To protect yourself from this, as well as save on its payment, you have to buy boilers. Now you will learn what types of water heaters are, their design differences, the principle of operation, disadvantages and advantages. We will also consider the boiler device.

Types of boilers

Boilers can run on gas, electricity, several types of fuel (combined), there are also indirect type units. Models of heaters differ in how they heat water, in the location in the room, in the way the combustion chamber is arranged.

Fuel type

Electric units differ from gas ones in that the water in them is heated by a heating element installed inside, while in the latter a burner serves for this purpose.

The most widespread in everyday life is electrical equipment, despite the fact that it has a number of disadvantages:

  • less power;
  • long duration of water heating;
  • higher cost of the energy source.

The spread of electric water heaters is primarily due to the fact that for the installation of gas boilers, you need to obtain additional permits, collect a package of documents, install a chimney, etc.

Boiler diagram

Another type of heaters — a device with indirect heating, has its own differences compared to the models described above. For water preparation, it takes thermal energy from external sources, such as boilers or a centralized heating system. Therefore, the installation of an indirect heating boiler is desirable next to these systems.

Combined boilers function perfectly on several types of fuel — electricity, gas, briquettes. Their difference from the previous ones is the presence of their own heating element.

Heating method

According to the method of heating, boilers are divided into flow and storage. In the first case, water does not accumulate inside the unit, which means that there is no storage tank in it. It immediately heats up and enters the faucet.

In the second case, water from the water supply system is always pumped into one of the sections of the tank at the moment when it is consumed from the other. The volume of the reservoir of storage boilers is 80, and 240 and 320 liters. And this means that it is important to install them in the case when large volumes of water are required and there are periodic drops with its flow.

Installation location

On sale there are wall-mounted or floor-mounted boilers.

Wall models have:

  • compact dimensions;
  • smaller tank volume (storage devices);
  • they are cheaper.

When you need a lot of water (from 50 liters per day), it is better to carry out the installation steps for the outdoor unit.

They have:

  • tanks up to 1000 liters;
  • convenient in operation;
  • are either horizontal or vertical.

Camera type

A gas or combined boiler can have one of two combustion chambers — open or closed. In the first case, the combustion air for the fuel comes naturally from the room. Waste products are thrown into the chimney to the street.

Boilers with a closed combustion chamber are in many ways preferable. Combustion air is forcibly supplied from the street through a coaxial chimney and combustion products are also forcibly removed.

The advantages of the system are that the microclimate in the room remains untouched, while in the case of an open combustion chamber, there is often a lack of oxygen in the apartment and there is a state of suffocation in some residents.

Good to know:

The principle of operation and the scheme of boilers

The device of a boiler for heating water is not difficult. It differs slightly depending on the type of unit.

gas boiler

The main elements are:

  • steel body with various types of coating;
  • tank;
  • a layer of thermal insulation that prevents heat loss;
  • exhaust hood that blocks the reverse flow of combustion products;
  • heat exchanger;
  • fuel consumption sensor;
  • gas-burner;
  • protection system to prevent gas ingress in the event of a malfunction;
  • Control block.

Principle of operation:

  1. The tank has an outlet and an inlet for hot and cold water.
  2. Under the pressure created in the water supply system, water enters the boiler tank and heats up.
  3. When hot water is taken, cold water immediately enters the tank from below and is heated again to the set temperature.

electric boiler

The principle of operation and the device of an electric type water heater do not differ much from a gas one.

Electric water heater device

Its main elements are:

  • frame;
  • hot and cold water pipes;
  • thermal insulation layer;
  • adjustable thermostat;
  • water tank;
  • thermometer;
  • heating element — heating element;
  • valves — check and safety.

Scheme of operation of a storage electric boiler

Similar to the one used in gas. The difference is that the water entering the inside of the tank is heated by a heater, which becomes red-hot when electrical energy is applied to it. If there is no tank, the coolant heats up instantly and is immediately consumed for needs.

In general, the storage water heater device and the instantaneous water heater device differ only in the presence of a tank.

Indirect water heater

The device of the indirect heating boiler is as follows:

  • frame;
  • storage tank;
  • thermometer;
  • heat exchanger;
  • inlet and outlet for water;
  • heating element;
  • control sensors;
  • pump;
  • automation system;
  • valves.

The indirect heating boiler works as follows:

  1. The coolant enters the heat exchanger from an external source.
  2. Passing through it, he gives off heat to the water that is in the boiler.
  3. The pump is responsible for the circulation, which is automatically activated by the system.
  4. Heated water is supplied to household needs when the tap is opened.

Combined electric boiler

The combined type thermostat device differs from the indirect one in that a heating element is additionally installed inside it. Thus, the coolant inside the tank can be heated both by its own heating element and from an external coolant.

The principle of operation of the boiler does not differ from that presented earlier.

Knowing the device of the boiler will help you to clean any water heater yourself correctly and without problems.

Electric boiler device (video)

What parts the device consists of and what they are can be seen after watching the video clip. You will definitely understand the internal «stuffing» of all water heaters.

As it has already become clear, there were no significant differences in the design and principles of operation of water heaters. They differ only in the fuel used and, accordingly, in the method of heating.

Viktor Datsky

Consultant in the field of household appliances. I help guests of the SovetExpert.ru project to choose the right product and save money when buying. I have an unbiased opinion. Ready for dialogue.


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