A heat accu­mu­la­tor, also known as a ther­mal accu­mu­la­tor, or a buffer tank, is gain­ing more and more pop­u­lar­i­ty every year as one of the impor­tant ele­ments of the heat­ing sys­tem of a pri­vate house.

  • Heat accu­mu­la­tor and its use with heat sources of var­i­ous types

  • Heat accu­mu­la­tor in a sys­tem with a sol­id fuel boil­er

  • How to choose the right heat accu­mu­la­tor

  • What type of heat stor­age is right for you

  • Mak­ing a heat accu­mu­la­tor with your own hands

Heating system of a two-story private house.

Heat­ing sys­tem of a two-sto­ry pri­vate house.

More­over, in some Euro­pean coun­tries, the use of sol­id fuel heat­ing boil­ers with­out heat accu­mu­la­tors is gen­er­al­ly pro­hib­it­ed, and the list of such coun­tries is con­stant­ly updat­ed. Yes, and in our coun­try, the pace of sales of heat accu­mu­la­tors for heat­ing boil­ers shows a steady increase from year to year.

Some domes­tic man­u­fac­tur­ers have launched the pro­duc­tion of ther­mal bat­ter­ies designed specif­i­cal­ly for Russ­ian con­di­tions and cli­mat­ic fea­tures of our coun­try. Let’s try to fig­ure out what the pur­pose of this type of equip­ment is, what are its fea­tures, and most impor­tant­ly, what the instal­la­tion of a heat accu­mu­la­tor will give to a par­tic­u­lar own­er of a pri­vate house, and how to choose exact­ly what is need­ed.

Heat accu­mu­la­tor and its use with heat sources of var­i­ous types

The prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of a heat accu­mu­la­tor is very sim­ple: its main task is to accu­mu­late ther­mal ener­gy when there is an excess of it in the heat­ing sys­tem, and to release this heat dur­ing its deficit, i.e. when the heat source is not work­ing. From this fol­lows the main con­clu­sion — the most effi­cient use of heat accu­mu­la­tors with heat sources, which have a pro­nounced peri­od­ic nature of work.

These include the major­i­ty of sol­id fuel boil­ers, which are very com­mon both in Rus­sia and abroad. As well as rapid­ly gain­ing pop­u­lar­i­ty, espe­cial­ly in the south, solar col­lec­tors. It is clear that sol­id fuel boil­ers heat water only dur­ing com­bus­tion, and solar col­lec­tors are use­less at night.

But that’s not all, even elec­tric heat­ing boil­ers com­bined with heat stor­age can be more effi­cient. If the dif­fer­ence between day­time and night­time elec­tric­i­ty tar­iffs is sig­nif­i­cant, for exam­ple, the night­time tar­iff is more than 2 times less than the day­time one, you can make the heat­ing sys­tem in the house so that the elec­tric boil­er works only at night, and heat the house dur­ing the day due to the heat accu­mu­lat­ed in heat accu­mu­la­tor. By the way, tak­ing into account the explo­sive growth of elec­tric­i­ty tar­iffs, the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of such a deci­sion becomes rel­e­vant.

Anoth­er fac­tor deter­min­ing the effi­cien­cy of using heat accu­mu­la­tors is that a heat accu­mu­la­tor can become a link that com­bines sev­er­al heat sources at once. In oth­er words, if nec­es­sary — for exam­ple, when the cost of solar col­lec­tors will decrease even more, and the effi­cien­cy will increase — you can rebuild the heat­ing sys­tem in your house with­out sig­nif­i­cant changes so that you can heat the premis­es to the max­i­mum due to cheap solar ener­gy, but at the same time, when the sun no, use a sol­id fuel boil­er.

In this case, it becomes pos­si­ble to ful­ly accu­mu­late all the excess heat, and then give it away as need­ed. In fact, the heat accu­mu­la­tor allows the use of var­i­ous sources of ther­mal ener­gy at the cur­rent min­i­mum cost and at the same time ensures the sta­bil­i­ty of the sys­tem by switch­ing between them. Of course, not every heat accu­mu­la­tor has such an oppor­tu­ni­ty — you should select the desired mod­el in advance.

Heat accu­mu­la­tor in a sys­tem with a sol­id fuel boil­er

Cur­rent­ly, heat accu­mu­la­tors are most often used in heat­ing sys­tems with sol­id fuel boil­ers. A char­ac­ter­is­tic fea­ture of sol­id fuel boil­ers is that the opti­mal mode of their oper­a­tion is asso­ci­at­ed with com­plete com­bus­tion of fuel, i.e. achieved when oper­at­ing at max­i­mum pow­er. Oth­er­wise, as a result of incom­plete com­bus­tion of the fuel, tox­ic gas­es are formed, the heat exchange sur­faces inside the boil­er become clogged, soot appears in the chim­ney, which leads to dete­ri­o­ra­tion in per­for­mance and even fail­ure of the boil­er, which is unsafe for the house and its inhab­i­tants.

So, it is best when the boil­er is work­ing “at full”. Such a regime is quite jus­ti­fied in the cold, but for most of the year the heat­ing sys­tem of the house sim­ply does not need the amount of heat received in excess — it will be too hot. If you do not have a heat accu­mu­la­tor, the only way out is to “heat the street”, i.e. open vents. This is both expen­sive and inef­fi­cient.

There­fore, a buffer tank is built into the heat­ing sys­tem — it takes away excess ther­mal ener­gy, which oth­er­wise would sim­ply be wast­ed aim­less­ly, in order to sub­se­quent­ly use them for their intend­ed pur­pose, with­out spend­ing fuel on this!

In short, a heat­ing sys­tem with a sol­id fuel boil­er and a heat accu­mu­la­tor works like this. Dur­ing oper­a­tion, the sol­id fuel boil­er not only sup­plies the heat­ed coolant to the heat­ing sys­tem of the house, but also heats it up in the heat accu­mu­la­tor tank. After the boil­er stops work­ing, the house, accord­ing­ly, begins to cool. At this moment, the air tem­per­a­ture sen­sor or the coolant tem­per­a­ture sen­sor in the heat­ing sys­tem sends a sig­nal to turn on the cir­cu­la­tion pump, which ensures the sup­ply of the coolant accu­mu­lat­ed in the heat accu­mu­la­tor tank to the house heat­ing sys­tem.

Heating system with solid fuel boiler and heat accumulator.

Heat­ing sys­tem with sol­id fuel boil­er and heat accu­mu­la­tor.

When the tem­per­a­ture of the air (heat car­ri­er) ris­es to the set val­ue, the sen­sor turns off the pump and the heat sup­ply stops. At the same time, the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in the tank decreas­es slight­ly, because part of the ener­gy was trans­ferred to the heat­ing sys­tem. It should be not­ed that due to the good ther­mal insu­la­tion of the heat accu­mu­la­tor, the coolant, being inside the tank, cools down very slow­ly by itself. Cycles of turn­ing on and off the pump con­tin­ue until the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant in the heat accu­mu­la­tor remains high­er than in the heat­ing sys­tem. And the house will not cool down.

Experts esti­mate the eco­nom­ic effect of installing a heat accu­mu­la­tor in dif­fer­ent ways. This effect depends on many fac­tors, some of which will be dis­cussed below. On aver­age, it ranges from 20%, i.e. every 5th ruble is saved. Note that the heat accu­mu­la­tor is espe­cial­ly effec­tive in the off-sea­son, with its fre­quent tem­per­a­ture fluc­tu­a­tions.

And here comes anoth­er use­ful fea­ture of the heat accu­mu­la­tor — in addi­tion to improv­ing the secu­ri­ty of the house and sav­ing you mon­ey, it also gives you com­fort. First­ly, with the advent of a buffer tank in your house, you will have to load fuel into the boil­er much less often. If you have cal­cu­lat­ed and installed every­thing cor­rect­ly, if your house has good ther­mal insu­la­tion, using a heat accu­mu­la­tor, you will be able to heat your sol­id fuel boil­er not sev­er­al times a day, but up to 1 time in 2 days.

Sec­ond­ly, the heat accu­mu­la­tor is able to smooth out the “tem­per­a­ture jumps” asso­ci­at­ed with the cool­ing of the coolant in the heat­ing sys­tem, because. this sys­tem becomes more sta­ble and iner­tial. Third­ly, it helps to sim­pli­fy the main­te­nance of a sol­id fuel boil­er and even increase its ser­vice life. Fourth­ly, with the help of a heat accu­mu­la­tor, you can addi­tion­al­ly pro­vide your home with hot water, but this pos­si­bil­i­ty is not pro­vid­ed in all mod­els.

How to choose the right heat accu­mu­la­tor

First you have to cal­cu­late the vol­ume of the heat accu­mu­la­tor. This is impor­tant because the over­all dimen­sions of the buffer tank depend on the vol­ume. It should be remem­bered that you still need to find the “right” place in the house in order to first bring in a heat accu­mu­la­tor of con­sid­er­able width and height through the door­ways, and then also install it next to the sol­id fuel boil­er, as is most often the case in prac­tice. Of course, only a spe­cial­ist can make accu­rate cal­cu­la­tions, because. this requires tak­ing into account many spe­cif­ic fac­tors, but in any case, you need to under­stand what kind of buffer capac­i­ty you are buy­ing.

The Evan GTV 500-1.5 heat accumulator has dimensions of 1665 x 743 x 743 mm and weighs 180 kg.

The Evan GTV 500–1.5 heat accu­mu­la­tor has dimen­sions of 1665 x 743 x 743 mm and weighs 180 kg.

The vol­ume of the heat accu­mu­la­tor direct­ly depends on the pow­er of the sol­id fuel heat­ing boil­er. There are sev­er­al pre­lim­i­nary cal­cu­la­tion meth­ods based on deter­min­ing the abil­i­ty of a sol­id fuel boil­er to heat the required vol­ume of work­ing flu­id to a tem­per­a­ture of at least 40 ° C dur­ing the com­bus­tion of one full load of fuel, i.e. in about 2–3 hours. It is believed that in this way the max­i­mum effi­cien­cy of the boil­er is achieved with max­i­mum fuel econ­o­my.

But, as a rule, for a start, you can use the fol­low­ing cal­cu­la­tion method: 1 kW of pow­er of a sol­id fuel boil­er must cor­re­spond to at least 25 liters, but not more than 50 liters of the vol­ume of the heat accu­mu­la­tor con­nect­ed to it.

Thus, with a heat­ing boil­er pow­er of 15 kW, the capac­i­ty of the heat accu­mu­la­tor must be at least: 15 * 25 u003d 375 liters. And no more than 15 * 50 = 750 liters. It is bet­ter to choose with a mar­gin, i.e. about 400–500 liters.

In gen­er­al, man­u­fac­tur­ers of heat accu­mu­la­tors offer prod­ucts of var­i­ous vol­umes — from 40 to 10,000 liters. Atten­tion! Heat accu­mu­la­tors with a capac­i­ty of more than 500 liters may not fit through the door­way of your house.

Next, you will have to decide on the type of heat accu­mu­la­tor.

What type of heat stor­age is right for you

The type depends on your needs, ie. how exact­ly you want to use it. There are 4 con­di­tion­al types of heat accu­mu­la­tors:

  • A sim­ple body accu­mu­la­tor, for con­nec­tion to a sin­gle heat source;

  • Buffer tank for the simul­ta­ne­ous con­nec­tion of sev­er­al heat sources, such as a sol­id fuel heat­ing boil­er and a solar col­lec­tor. It dif­fers from the pre­vi­ous type by the pres­ence of a low­er coil;

  • A heat accu­mu­la­tor with a DHW coil is designed both for heat­ing and for the pro­duc­tion of hot water in flow mode;

  • A heat accu­mu­la­tor with an inter­nal tank for hot water sup­ply (tank-in-tank design) is used both for heat stor­age in the heat­ing sys­tem and for the prepa­ra­tion and accu­mu­la­tion of hot water used in every­day life.

Evan Company

Alexan­der Fedo­tov, Head of Sales Depart­ment “Evan Com­pa­nies”

“The choice of a heat accu­mu­la­tor depends on the goals that the heat­ing sys­tem is designed to solve. This could be heat­ing the build­ing or pro­vid­ing heat­ing and hot water. In the first case, a con­ven­tion­al insu­lat­ed tank can be used, in the sec­ond case we are talk­ing about a device with var­i­ous built-in heat exchang­ers.

When choos­ing a heat accu­mu­la­tor, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the type of the main heat source and their quan­ti­ty in the heat sup­ply sys­tem. Impor­tant fac­tors are also the pow­er of the heat­ing device and the hourly heat con­sump­tion.”.

In addi­tion, the heat accu­mu­la­tor can be addi­tion­al­ly equipped with one or more heat­ing ele­ments for autonomous water heat­ing, when nec­es­sary.

The price of a heat accu­mu­la­tor depends on its vol­ume, type, as well as on addi­tion­al options and, of course, on the man­u­fac­tur­er’s brand.

A few words about the man­u­fac­tur­ers of heat accu­mu­la­tors. Numer­ous mod­els of both domes­tic and for­eign man­u­fac­tur­ers are pre­sent­ed on the Russ­ian mar­ket. Among the most proven prod­ucts, we can dis­tin­guish the prod­ucts of the Swedish con­cern NIBE (in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion it is offered by Evan), the Ital­ian Cor­di­vari and TML, the Ger­man Wolf and Wespe heizung, the Finnish brand Jaspi.

Mak­ing a heat accu­mu­la­tor with your own hands

The Inter­net is replete with var­i­ous kinds of rec­om­men­da­tions for crafts­men on how to make a heat accu­mu­la­tor on their own, assur­ing that there is noth­ing dif­fi­cult about it. On the one hand, the abun­dance of these rec­om­men­da­tions once again empha­sizes the impor­tance of heat accu­mu­la­tors in the heat­ing sys­tem — use­less things are not dis­cussed. On the oth­er hand, it makes a sane per­son think: when it is nec­es­sary to make a choice between buy­ing a heat accu­mu­la­tor from a cer­ti­fied man­u­fac­tur­er and pay­ing a lit­tle more, or mak­ing it “in the garage” but sav­ing your mon­ey, you need to think first of all about the con­se­quences.

What is a heat accu­mu­la­tor ✮A large selec­tion of heat accu­mu­la­tors on the por­tal TopClimat.ru

Because even the great­est folk crafts­man, when con­struct­ing a heat accu­mu­la­tor from an iron bar­rel, as is often rec­om­mend­ed on var­i­ous sites, must under­stand what such imag­i­nary sav­ings will lead to. First­ly, the tem­per­a­ture of the coolant inside the heat accu­mu­la­tor can be close to 100°C, and sec­ond­ly, there is an increased pres­sure inside the sys­tem. No one can pre­dict how the hand­i­craft buffer tank will behave dur­ing oper­a­tion. Whether it is worth putting your home at risk is an open ques­tion. Every­one makes a choice.

Popular Models

Tank tank Wolf 1000

Heat accu­mu­la­tors Jaspi 500 / 500‑K / 700‑K

Indi­vid­ual tanks Evan 300

Heat accu­mu­la­tors: all mod­els

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